Christmas health tips

10 Health Tips for Surviving the Festive Season

Christmas and New Year is fast approach and while I was looking at how to survive and stay healthy during this period, I really should be looking at how to survive the lead up to Christmas as well. So instead I have done up 10 health tips for surviving the festive season.

It is such a busy time of year with schools finishing, Christmas shopping to get finish off, Christmas parties and lastly work is manic trying to finish off everything before Christmas. Sounds all a bit silly to have all that stress for just one day.

Every year people ask me how they can stay healthy during Christmas and New Year and every year I have to tell them the same thing.

Moderation is the key to staying healthy and also staying hydrated.

10 Health tips for surviving the festive season

So what can you do to survive the season and come out the other end actually feeling you have had a break, rather than feeling in desperate need of one?

I have compiled 10 top tips to ensure you get the most out of the festive season and make it through less stressed and maybe a little more healthier.

  1. Plan Ahead– Try and plan to have all your Christmas shopping and all your supplies for the silly season organised well in advance to save on the stress of doing things last minute. Pre-order foods online if you have to and get it delivered.
  2. Deflate the Expectations– Don’t try and make everything perfect because will only lead to stress and anxiety if things do not go to plan. The main thing is to have fun and enjoy the family and friends. Don’t get caught up in buying expensive gifts and trying to overdo everything as this can spoil all your fun and lead to disappointment. Remember it is the festive season, not the stress and disappointment season.
  3. Delegate– Don’t try and do everything yourself. On Christmas day or New Years Eve, get family or friends to bring a salad, or a dessert, or both. When people arrive if someone asks to help, let them. Many hands make light work. If nobody volunteers to help, make sure you ask. You deserve to enjoy yourself too. While you are preparing food a nice glass of wine will ease any stress.
  4. Don’t be on your own– Christmas is a time to be with loved ones, friends or people in your same situation. If you have nothing planned, plan a small party at your place, or go to a friends, or family members place. There is nothing worse than being on your own where depression can set in.
  5. Ditch the pasta and bread– Go with more Paleo/Primal eating for Christmas and eat healthy while enjoying good food. In Australia there is no need to use fillers like bread and pasta, when we have all this healthy beautiful food to fill up on. Replace the chips with nuts containing healthy oils. Go for pistachios etc that keep you busy shelling and they taste good too. Cut up veggie sticks to go in dips and have heaps of lean meats, prawns, salads and veggies to make Christmas healthy and enjoyable. Cut up heaps of fresh fruits for dessert. Lastly remember everything in moderation and the odd dessert isn’t going to kill you.
  6. Rehydrate before and after drinking– Most hang-over’s are caused by dehydration  and regularly hydrating while drinking will make your next day feel so much better on waking. Remember water alone will not keep you hydrated. You need to use electrolytes before and during your drinking session on Xmas and New Years Eve. You need to use a proper electrolyte because Gatorade and powerade are not electrolytes, they are cordials with a bit of salt. Getting some electrolytes into you before and after drinking alcohol will be the difference between waking up with a sore head or not. Have a read of my article on electrolytes
  7. Know your limit with alcohol– Let’s face it you don’t have to write yourself off and embarrass yourself to have a good time. Most people actually feel relaxed and jovial after only a few glasses of alcohol. After the first couple of glasses, limit your alcohol to one glass per hour and drink water and some electrolytes in between. Always eat food before drinking. You will feel better for spacing your drinks, eating food and staying hydrated.
  8. Detox and restore your microbiome after the festive season– After Christmas and New Year is over, your number one resolution should be detox and restore your microbiome with healthy bacteria. All that christmas cheer, over consumption of food, alcohol  and stress all reduce your good gut bacteria and increase your bad bacteria, so you need to restore your microbiome again. You can also find out more about my microbiome restore

Final Word

Christmas and New Year is all about having fun and not getting too stressed with everything. It’s about good food, good company and most importantly it’s about family and friends.  Make sure you enjoy yourself, share some love and remember that moderation is the key to anything to do with keeping healthy and safe during the festive season.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

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Do you sometimes have a good day?

Do you sometimes have a good day?

Sounds like an odd thing to ask someone but the reality is that many people actually wake up each day with the reality that today may not be a good day, or that they only have a good day every now and again. If that is you, you are probably one of the millions of people in this country suffering depression.

More than one million people in Australia suffer depression each year and of those about 160,000 of those are teenagers. Australia has the highest per capita anti-depressants use in the world and seeing we are supposed to be the lucky country, many of us are not so lucky it seems.

Many people wake each day to find themselves not wanting to face the day, but rather stay in bed and hide beneath the doona to escape the day that confronts them. Life can seem dark, gloomy and almost not existent. The thought of facing the day, let alone people, can seems like a day in the dark fires of hell. One minute you can be having a laugh and the next minute someone could say the minutest thing and have you in tears.

While you feel so exhausted, sleep can be very erratic. The exhausting takes over, the negative thoughts set in and everything just seems so damn hard and overwhelming. The back dog takes its huge bite and the spiral into the dark realms of a typical day with depression sets in like ground hog day once again. The feels like there is no end in sight, no help and life seems almost pointless.

For millions of people this is how the day starts and the day ends. If this is you, you most likely have depression. But the good news is that there is help out there and there is a way to end the internal fight within.

Multimodality approach

Before I go into what can help, let me be 100% clear about treating depression. It requires a multi-modality approach to treat it, not just a pill. So many people come to see me for help with depression and just want a pill to help it. While there are treatment (medical and complementary medicine) that help with treating depression, there is no one pill to fix it. Because the medical treatment involves a pill, people get so used to wanting a quick fix of a pill, but the honest truth is that anti-depressants, or a pill of any kind, do not fix depression.

Yes, they help with serotonin levels, but they do not treat the root cause of depression. Worse still, long term use of anti-depressants (while beneficial short term) can lead to cardiovascular disease, dementia, Alzheimer’s and other cognitive conditions.

Alcohol and other stimulants

Secondly, alcohol and other stimulants only make depression worse. They not only interfere and affect medications and are contraindicated while taking medications (SSRI’s), but they also interfere with the chemicals in your brain, making depression worse.

Withdrawal effects of medications

The next thing I need people to know is that when it is time to come off any medications (SSRI’s), you will have side effects, even when tapered down slowly. Medications should never be stopped suddenly and always tapered down slowly.  Like any drug, you will have withdrawal effect and this is the cause of many people getting scared and go back to the safety net of medications again. Withdrawal is a normal process that you are going to go through and if done properly and in conjunction with natural medicines to ease this process, this transition process will take about two weeks and should be much easier.

The only way to assist with helping depression properly and effectively is a combination of counselling, medications, complementary medicines, diet, exercise and lifestyle modifications. If you miss out one of those components then you aren’t going to treat depression properly and the reason so many people do not get their depression sorted out.

Complementary medicines

Research has shown that Acupuncture on its own, by a series of treatments, may be as effective as antidepressants, without all of the side effects. Research has also shown that Acupuncture may be equivalent to talk therapy (counselling) when used in a series of treatment. Chinese herbal medicines may assist depression and you will need to see a qualified Chinese Medicine practitioner to have individualized care, treatments and medicines just for you.

Omega oils have also been shown to help with depression as have many complementary medicines and supplements.

Diet and lifestyle modifications, especially low GI anti-inflammatory based diet will definitely been shown to be of benefit with depression too. As I said before it is about a multimodality approach alongside counselling that is needed to treat depression effectively and properly.

Restoring the microbiome with beneficial good bacteria has also been shown to assist depression and mood disorders. This is due to the gut/brain interconnection. But as mentioned previously,there is no magic pill to make depression go away on its own.

Become creative, dynamic and effective

As one of my old lecturers used to say, the best way to treat depression is making someone creative, dynamic and effective. By that we mean get them into something they love to do (Creative). Get the passion for life back. Get them exercising (Dynamic) to get those natural endorphins, dopamine’s, melatonin and serotonin levels working. Give them the right diet, the right supplements and lifestyle adjustments and they will then be on their way to feeling better all over (Effective).

Nobody needs to suffer with having a good day sometimes. There is help out there and it does require a multimodality approach to assist with better moods and a better life.

If you do need help with having more better days, contact my friendly staff and find out how I may be able to assist you.

If you are in crisis, please call lifeline on (131114). You can also attend your nearest emergency center.

You can also see your general practitioner for a referral to a counsellor, psychologist, or psychiatrist. Beyond blue also have some great resources too.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

 

References

  1. Acupuncture and Counselling for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomised Controlled Trial – https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001518
  2. Hugh MacPherson, Andrew Vickers, Martin Bland, David Torgerson, Mark Corbett, Eldon Spackman, Pedro Saramago, Beth Woods, Helen Weatherly, Mark Sculpher, Andrea Manca, Stewart Richmond, Ann Hopton, Janet Eldred, Ian Watt. Acupuncture for chronic pain and depression in primary care: a programme of researchProgramme Grants for Applied Research, 2017; 5 (3): 1 DOI: 10.3310/pgfar05030
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1551714417306353
  4. The role of inflammation and the gut microbiome in depression and anxiety-https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24476

Medications affecting the microbiome

Many Medications Significantly Affects The Microbiome

New research is emerging to show that many medications significantly affect the microbiome and lead to long term health implications through disruption of healthy gut bacteria.

As mention already in my previous post about the importance of proper restoring the microbiome for optimum health, many medications and hormones actually have a toxic affect on the microbiome and can cause dysbiosis. It is crucial to for all of us to understand the consequences of medication use in the gut microbiome. I’ll talk about this in my next post.

A new study has found that many common drugs — including those that treat diabetes, digestive problems, bacterial infections, and even depression — could actually predispose people to certain types of infection by affecting the balance of their gut microbiome.

New findings

A new study from the University Medical Centre Groningen and the Maastricht University Medical Centre, both in the Netherlands, has found evidence to suggest that many common drugs — from antibiotics to antidepressants — have a significant impact on the gut microbiome. They can even disrupt the delicate balance of bacterial populations.

The researchers compared the results of people who took prescription drugs with those of people who did not. They also looked at the effects of individual medications versus combinations of drugs.

They found that 18 common drug categories have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the gut microbiome, which could lead to serious health issues. These health issues included intestinal infections, obesity, gastrointestinal conditions and various conditions linked to gut health.

Many Medications Disrupt The Microbiome

While pain medications, steroids, antidepressant and hormones (contraceptives and hormone replacement) were shown to significantly impact the bacterial balance in the microbiome, four drug categories appeared to have the strongest impact. These were:

  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which reduce the production of stomach acid
  • Metformin, which helps people manage the symptoms of type 2 diabetes
  • Antibiotics, which fight bacterial infections
  • Laxatives, which help treat constipation

The analyses revealed that people who took PPIs had more upper gastrointestinal tract dysbiotic bacteria, and that their bodies produced more fatty acid. Meanwhile, those who took metformin had higher levels of Escherichia coli, a bacteria that can cause diarrhoea and urinary tract infections. One of the reasons many stop Metformin is because of significant gastrointestinal symptoms and pain. Long term it can also damage the liver.

Antibiotics Significantly Impact The Microbiome

We have always know that antiobiotics have an major impact on the gut and microbiome, but many people are unaware that all medications have the potential to disrupt the microbiome and cause significant harm to our health long term.

When it comes to antibiotics, alarmingly Australians are amongst the highest users of antibiotics in the world with 46% of the population taking one course of antibiotics annually.

A single course of antibiotics can disrupt the gut microbiota quantity and composition for up to four years. The loss of microbial balance leads to a breakdown of endothelial barrier protection, increased intestinal permeability, and subsequent immune dysregulation.

Proper Microbiome restore needs to be done properly

As mentioned in my previous post, the good news is although a dysfunctional microbiome can come about rapidly, you can begin to restore a healthy microbiome just as quickly through strategic microbiome restore.

As I have said before, when it comes to proper microbiome restore,  it isn’t just as easy as taking any old probiotic, or a combination of probiotics. Microbiome restore requires and individualised and strain specific approach and it needs to be done in stages with antimicrobials, gut repair and prebiotics as well. Dysbiotic microbes can be hard to treat effectively because they have evolved and adapted to life inside human beings. Consequently, elimination of these organisms requires a similarly evolved and adapted approach. This is all part of the microbiome restore protocol I use with my patients.

If you would like to find out how to restore your microbiome properly, please give my friendly staff a call and find out how I may be able to assist you.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

 

Microbiome

The Importance Of Properly Restoring The Microbiome For Optimum Health

One of the things I teach my patients is the importance of properly restoring the microbiome for optimum health and also reducing inflammation in the body.

Many people’s daily bloating, fluid retention, gastrointestinal symptoms, health issues, chronic disease states are being exacerbated by an unhealthy balance in this unique ecosystem we call the microbiome.

The problem is that many people do not really understand the importance of the microbiome, and even many healthcare professionals do not fully understand how to help with proper microbiome repair and restore.

Many people are also led to believe that by just taking probiotics, that this is enough to restore the healthy bacteria in the gut/microbiome.

I wish it was that easy, but it isn’t and this is why many people continue to have gastrointestinal issues, inflammation and chronic health issues, despite thinking that are doing the right thing for their gut health.

What is the Microbiome?

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is host to an extraordinary amount of microorganisms composed of bacteria, viruses and microbes, collectively known as the microbiome. The microbiome is the name given to all of the genes inside these microbial cells.

Every human being has anywhere between 10 trillion and 100 trillion microbial cells all working together in a symbiotic relationship. This benefits both the microbes and their hosts, as long as the body is in a healthy state.

Recent scientific advances in genetics mean that humans know a lot more about the microbes in the body. There has been lot of time and money put into researching the interactions within the human body’s ecosystem and their relevance to health and disease.

The two terms ‘microbiota’ and ‘microbiome’ are often used to mean the same thing and are used interchangeably. I will explain the differences between them and how both are being used and researched in modern medicine.

You exist in a symbiotic relationship with your bacterial ecosystem, and there is a two-way relationship that makes your health inseparable from that of your microbiome and vice versa.

The benefits of a healthy microbiome/microbiota

The benefits of a healthy microbiome/microbiota, extend beyond the gut and digestive system and has a significant systemic impact on some the following:

  • Nutrient metabolism
  • Body composition (weight)
  • Cardiovascular health,
  • Chronic disease states
  • Inflammation in the body
  • Pain pathways
  • Immunity
  • Mental Health
  • Neuroendocrine function
  • Gene Expression

What is the Microbiota

The gut microbiota used to be called the microflora of the gut. The importance of the microbiota has been known for a long time, but now medical science is discovering just how important it is, and it is now becoming a cornerstone of preventive medicine.

The gut microbiota contains over 3 million genes, making it 150 times more genetically varied than the human body. The gut microbiota of each individual is very unique and it has a major contribution to how a person fights disease, digests food, and even his or her mood and psychological processes.

This symbiotic relationship greatly benefits humans. The presence of this normal flora includes microorganisms that are so present in the environment that they can be found in practically all animals from the same habitat.

However, while there are good bacteria found within these native microbes, some of these microbes also include harmful bacteria that can overcome the body’s defences that separate them from vital systems and organs. There are beneficial bacteria in the gut, and there are harmful bacteria that can cross into wider systems and can cause local infections of the GI tract. These infections can then cause infection and inflammation and can also worsen disease states in the body.

What is dybiosis?

The microbiome plays an important role in resisting intestinal overgrowth of externally introduced populations that would otherwise cause disease. In our microbiome, the “good” bacteria compete with the “bad,” with some even releasing anti-inflammatory compounds.

Bacterial dysbiosis produces an endotoxin called lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It is one of the most inflammatory substances known. LPS is also major contributor to the inflammation, which then drives many chronic health conditions and disease states.

These bad bacteria are called dysbiotic bacteria and cause a process called ‘dysbiosis’.

Broadly speaking, dysbiosis indicates the existence of either the wrong microbiota (e.g. overgrowth of bacteria, fungi and/or parasites) and/or the wrong numbers of the right microbiota (imbalances in composition), or either, in the wrong place.

Dysbiosis causes increased gut and intestinal permeability, which can lead to what we call leaky gut, or leaky gut syndrome. Dysbiosis can also consequent lead to up-regulation of inflammatory pathways and lead to increased inflammation in the body.

Dybiosis is implicated in many chronic diseases

Dysbiosis is very common it the western culture and bacterial dysbiosis is now being linked to causing, or exacerbating many health conditions and disease states. Research has found links between bacterial populations, whether normal or disturbed, and the following diseases:

  • Endometriosis
  • Adenomyosis
  • PCOS
  • Asthma
  • Autism
  • Auto-immune conditions
  • Cancer
  • Celiac disease
  • Colitis
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • IBS
  • Crohn’s Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Eczema
  • Heart disease
  • Malnutrition
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Arthritis
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic Syndrome

What Causes Dysbiosis?

There are many things that lead to bacterial overgrowth, which then leads to dysbiosis. This is why many people suffer bloating, reflux, nausea, constipation, inflammatory bowel symptoms, and many other gastrointestinal symptoms daily.

Day-to-day risk factors include a western-based diet, overly hygienic living (being too sterile), alcohol, certain medications, hormones and the use of antibiotics.

Mood disorders, stress and being overly busy are also a big factors with creating dysbiosis and something that many overlook, or do not even realise. Yes, stress is a big factor in many gastrointestinal symptoms people experience daily.

With all these factors it means that almost everyone will have some degree of dysbiosis at some point in their life.

Many constantly have dysbiosis and why they often have long-standing digestive symptoms such persistent pain and bloating, constipation, alternating diarrhoea or other digestive imbalances. We also commonly see this with endometriosis and the dreaded “endo belly”

Medications Cause Dysbiosis and Significantly Affect The Microbiome

As mention already, many medications and hormones actually have a toxic affect on the microbiome and can cause dysbiosis. It is crucial to for all of us to understand the consequences of medication use in the gut microbiome. I’ll talk about this in my next post.

The good news, however, is although medications can cause a dysfunctional microbiome quite rapidly, you can begin to restore a healthy microbiome just as quickly through strategic microbiome restore.

Proper Microbiome Restore Protocols

When it comes to proper microbiome restore,  it isn’t just as easy as taking any old probiotic, or a combination of probiotics. Microbiome restore requires and individualised and strain specific approach and it needs to be done in stages with antimicrobials, gut repair and prebiotics as well. Dysbiotic microbes can be hard to treat effectively because they have evolved and adapted to life inside human beings. Consequently, elimination of these organisms requires a similarly evolved and adapted approach. This is all part of the microbiome restore protocol I use with my patients.

A New Understanding

When it comes to the perfect microbiome, researchers have discovered there is no ‘one size fits all’ across various populations. It is important to recognise that not all strains are created equal when it comes to their ability to rebuild a healthy microbiome.

What is now known is that there are only certain types of good probiotic bacteria that have benefit for our gut and microbiome, and that some strains of probiotic bacteria have no benefit. These new finding mean that we need to adopt a strain specific approach when repairing and restoring the microbiome.

From recent investigations and research, the best results are gained by introducing strain specific influential probiotic that have beneficial functions. These specifically influential strains are able to restore each patient’s unique microbiome by promoting the growth of key commensal (symbiotic) groups, but also by improving overall GIT function.

The Importance of Prebiotics

In addition to prescribing a specific probiotic formulation, prebiotic therapy is needed to help support and encourage the establishment of healthy microbiota by significantly increasing the numbers of beneficial bacteria. Without prebiotics, the probiotic bacteria do not grow and this is why they are essential for microbiome restore. Prebiotics are not talked about enough and many people do not realise their importance and often wonder why their probiotics are not working effectively enough.

Prebiotics are also needed to promote the growth of healthy microbiota, begin refurbishment of gut mucosa and improve gastrointestinal immunity. Prebiotics also help with inflammation and also support the integrity of the intestinal barrier, provide healthy immune responses and promote intestinal microbiome balance.

Microbiome Restore Protocols

With emerging research now highlighting the significance of developing and maintaining a healthy microbiome, it is important that everyone knows the importance of appropriate probiotic and prebiotic combinations. By supporting the restoration and repair of our micriobiome, we can all optimise our health, improve treatment outcomes and also help with reducing the risk of many chronic disease states.

If you would like to find out how to restore your microbiome properly, please give my friendly staff a call and find out how I may be able to assist you. Online and in person consultations are available. Some conditions apply.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

References
  1. Walker A, et al. Phylogeny, culturing, and metagenomics of the human gut microbiota. Trends Microbiol. 2014;22:267–74.
  2. Collado MC, et al. Role of commercial probiotic strains against human pathogen adhesion to intestinal mucus. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;45(4):454-60.
  3. Leahy SC, et al. Getting better with bifidobacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98(6):1303-15.
  4. McFarland LV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(18):2202-22.
  5. Jahn HU, et al. Immunological and trophical effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on the small intestine in healthy human volunteers. Digestion. 1996;57(2):95-104.
  6. Jahn HU, et al. Immunological and trophical effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on the small intestine in healthy human volunteers. Digestion. 1996;57(2):95-104.
  7. Dahan S, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii interferes with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli induced signaling pathways in T84 cells. Infect Immun. 2003;71:766-773.
  8. Hsieh H. Versalovic J. The human microbiome and probiotics: Implications for pediatrics. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2008;38(10):309–327.
  9. Lam EK, et al. Enhancement of gastric mucosal integrity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Life Sci. 2007;80(23):2128-36.
  10. Seth A, et al. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294(4):G1060-9.
  11. Gibson GR. Roberford M. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr. 1995;125:1401-1412.
  12. Fastinger ND, et al. A novel resistant maltodextrin alters gastrointestinal tolerance factors, fecal characteristics, and fecal microbiota in healthy adult humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27(2):356-66.
  13. Raninen K, et al. Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(1):9-21.
  14. Robison LE. Reeves S. EpiCor® and its immune effects on gut health. Embria Health Sciences, LLC. [Online]. No date. Available from: http://www.embriahealth.com/upload/pdf/EpiCor%20Science%20%20EpiCor%20and%20its%20Immune%20Effects%20on%20Gut%20Health_FINAL.pdf [Cited 16/02/13].
  15. Jensen GS, et al. Antioxidant bioavailability and rapid immune-modulating effects after consumption of a single acute dose of a high-metabolite yeast immunogen: results of a placebo-controlled double-blinded crossover pilot study. J Med Food. 2011 Sep;14(9):1002-10.
  1. Bartoli, C., Frachon, L., Barret, M., Huard-Chauveau, C., Mayjonade, B., Zanchetta, C., … & Roux, F. (2018, May 30). In situ relationships between microbiota and potential pathobiota in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ISME Journal. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41396-018-0152-7#article-info
  2. Berg, R. D. (1996). The indigenous gastrointestinal microflora. Trends in Microbiology, 4(11), 430-435. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0966842X96100573
  3. Carpenter, S. (2012, September). That gut feeling. Monitor on Psychology, 43(8), 50. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2012/09/gut-feeling.aspx
  4. Clapp, M., Aurora, N., Herrera, L., Bhatia, M., Wilen, E., & Wakefield, S. (2017, September 15). Gut microbiota’s effect on mental health: The gut-brain axis. Clinics and Practice, 7(4), 987. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5641835/
  5. NIH Human Microbiome Project. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://hmpdacc.org/
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angry anxiety brunette 2128817

Acupuncture Is Safe & Effective For The Relief of Migraines.

Researchers have successfully documented not only that acupuncture is safe and effective for the relief of migraines, but also how acupuncture achieves positive outcomes.

As a past sufferer (yes past sufferer) of Migraines, I know all too well how debilitating and painful this condition can be when an attack happens. Even when the initial stage of the Migraine subsides, the aura and residual effects can last for days. While pain medication is a much needed part of the process, I also know that if you don’t administer the medication at the right time, the medication sometimes will have little, or no effect, once the migraine takes hold. Worse still, the withdrawal effects of these very strong pain medications can often then induce migraines and headaches, which then require further medication. It really can be a never-ending viscous cycle.

Migraines really do need a multimodality approach to them because the causes of them come from neck dysfunction(sublaxations), diet, blood sugars, hormones, stress and lifestyle. This is why an individual approach is always needed to properly assess, evaluate and treat migraines is needed. Too many people are just patching their condition, with a variety of treatments that really are only just getting them through to the next attack. What people need is a treatment that will not only treat the cause of their migraines, but also help prevent further migraines and give them long term relief and even cure. Acupuncture is just one component in that overall treatment and prevention, alongside medical interventions. So let’s look at how acupuncture can help.

How can Acupuncture Help?

Acupuncture has been shown to induce important biological responses to prevent and alleviate migraines. Imaging studies of the brain using fMRI technology confirm that acupuncture causes specific cortical responses to achieve lasting analgesic effects. In addition, blood level measurements document specific responses to acupuncture that play an important role in preventing and eliminating pain.

Researchers conclude that acupuncture is effective for the prevention and treatment of migraine headaches. A meta-analysis of controlled clinical and laboratory investigations are the basis for the conclusion. In analysis of recent clinical trials, they showed the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for migraines, with less migraine days and less pain intensity levels when acupuncture was administered. Furthermore, no severe adverse effects occurred. A follow-up of up to three months following acupuncture treatments maintained the same results and showed that acupuncture is effective for the treatment of migraines both on the short-term and long-term basis.

In some of the investigation, researchers conducting a clinically-controlled study using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) where they found a significant decrease in the functional connectivity of the right frontoparietal network of migraine patients. This connectivity dysfunctions was found to be reversible after four weeks of treatment using acupuncture. This is another curative effect of acupuncture that is quantifiable in repeated controlled experiments.

Acupuncture has been used for assistance with pain for centuries

For over 7 thousand years, people have used acupuncture in China for the treatment of various pain conditions, including migraines. It is useful, both as a supplementary treatment and as an alternative treatment, in situations where there is no response to drug therapy. Migraines are a headache disorder affecting a broad population that causes many burdens due to associated healthcare costs and people not being able to go to school and work.

Up to 25% of households in Australia and the United States have at least one member who suffers from migraines. The estimated total number of migraine patients in the United States alone exceeds 28 million and half of them have reduced work or school productivity. In Australia millions of people suffer from Migraines daily and it also affects their work, study and general day to day function, with some not even able to leave their homes due to this debilitating condition.

Acupuncture has an analgesic action

Scientists have uncovered some of the biochemical mechanisms responsible for acupuncture’s pain killing effects. Drugs used for the treatment of migraines not only have a analgesic action, but they also activate a reaction in the cerebral vessels. In the studies analyzed it was found that acupuncture has been found this very same analgesic action and also activated the same process in the cerebral vessels. The studies revealed acupuncture’s ability to regulate key regions of the brain affected by migraines. The areas are essentially the pain circuitry regions of the brain and cognitive components of pain processing. In addition, acupuncture also restores normal serum nitric oxide (NO) levels that have been found to be almost 55% higher in patients with migraines. Excess NO is a potent vasodilator contributing to headaches and acupuncture restores homeostasis. The regulatory effects of acupuncture can be quantified as early as the fifth acupuncture session and the effects are cumulative.

Based on these and other studies in the meta-analysis, the researchers conclude that acupuncture improves patients’ psychological profile, relieves pain, is safe and cost-effective, and has been found to be at least as effective as conventional preventative pharmacologic treatments for migraines.

Final Word

At my clinic we know we see lots of people who are looking for relief from headaches and migraines. We use a multimodaility approach that also give an individualized treatment and also looks at the individuals cause of their migraines and headaches. Our aim is to assist in the with acute symptoms of migraines and headaches and assist in the prevention of them as well, along side medical interventions. With the right care, this can be done and now research is now backing up what we have known for many years.

If you need help with headaches and migraines, please call my friendly staff and find out how I may me able to assist you in your individual needs and ongoing health care.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-The Headache, Migraine and Pain Experts

 

References:

  1. Wang Y, Xue CC, Helme R, Da Costa C, Zheng Z (2015) Acupuncture for Frequent Migraine: A Randomized, Patient/Assessor Blinded, Controlled Trial with One-Year Follow-Up. Evid based Complement Alternat Med 2015: 920353.
  2. Da Silva AN (2015) Acupuncture for migraine prevention. Headache 55: 470-473.
  3. Vijayalakshmi I, Sjankar N, Saxena A, Bhatia MS (2014) Coomparison of effectiveness of acupuncture therapy and conventional drug therapy on psychological profile of migraine patients. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 58: 69-76.
  4. Mayrink WC, Garcia JBS, Dos Santos AM, Nunes JKVRS, Mendonc¸a THN. Effectiveness of Acupuncture as AuxiliaryTreatment for Chronic Headache. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2018 Oct;11(5):296e302.
Copy of Fertility Facts Being Overweight or underweight can adversely affect fertility

Being Overweight, or Underweight Can Adversely Affect Fertility

It is important to have healthy weight and waist size when trying to conceive. It is know that being underweight, or underweight can adversely affect fertility.

Healthy Waist Size

Healthy waist range for a woman is 80cm (from the belly button around) Healthy waist range for a man is 94cm (from the belly button around)

If a woman’s waist size is about 88cm and a man’s waist size if above 102cm then they are in what we call “metabolic syndrome”

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome increases their chances of the following:

  • diabetes
  • heart disease
  • depression
  • gynaecological conditions (PCOS, endometriosis etc)
  • sperm issues,
  • egg quality issues
  • reproductive issues,
  • increased miscarriage
  • increased risk of certain cancers
  • infertility

Excess body fat (now known as obestrogens) can disrupt hormones and fertility and can have a negative effect on egg and sperm quality.

Similarly being underweight and low body fat can affect fertility outcomes too.

Body fat has a regulatory role in reproduction

Body fat has a regulatory role in reproduction and a moderate loss of fat, from 10% to 15% below normal weight for height, may delay the menstrual cycle, completely stop the menses altogether and inhibit ovulation. Both dieting and excessive exercise can reduce body fat below the minimum amount and lead to infertility. But this is reversible with weight gain, increased body fat and reduction of intensive exercise, or both.

A moderate reduction in body fat, not just weight, for those overweight, can increase fertility and chances of pregnancy exponentially.

Similarly an increase in body fat for those that are underweight, and who don’t have enough body fat, can increase their fertility and chances of pregnancy as well.

This goes for men too. Increased body fat, or not enough body fat can affect hormone production and fertility and can affect sperm quality and sperm production.

The importance of preconception care

This is why preconception care and healthy screening and weight and waist management is so important before trying to conceive. This should also be a part of any fertility program and is definitely part of my fertility program for all couples.

Are you in healthy waist range?

Regards

Andrew Orr

– No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Reproductive Medicine

-The International Fertility Experts

Untitled design 16

Lycopene Helps Improve Sperm Quality

A new research study conducted by the university of Sheffield has shown that supplementation of Lycopene, a compound found in cooked tomatoes, has helped improve the sperm quality in a group of men.

Many studies have examined the role of dietary factors, antioxidants and amino acids and data from randomized controlled trials suggest that antioxidant therapy can improve sperm quality.

Health benefits of lycopene supplementation have been proposed for a variety of health conditions. This recent study examines whether 14mg of daily lycopene supplementation, for 12 weeks, can help improve sperm motility and sperm morphology in men.

Poor sperm quality

Poor sperm quality is a major contributor to infertility in heterosexual couples, but men are often overlooked and often are unwilling participants in the journey to have a baby. There is no doubt that sperm quality is declining and many couples inability to have a baby is actually coming from the male side of things, not the female side.

It is generally recognized that 50% of fertility issues are related to male sub-fertility and poor quality sperm. Typically, fertility problems in the male manifest themselves as ejaculates containing too few sperm (oligozoospermia), or sperm that swim poorly (asthenozoospermia), or sperm with poor size and shape (teratozoospermia) or a combination of all three.

Factors Affects Sperm Quality

Known factors that affect sperm are – Poor diet, obesity, alcohol, smoking, recreational drugs, steroids, medications, chemicals and environmental factors. There are also genetic and hereditary issues that affect sperm as well.

Women are often driving force behind fertility health

Women are often the ones being very proactive in whatever it takes to have a baby and will take supplements, improve their diet, and look at any way they can to help with conceiving. Unfortunately, getting men to do the same can be like pulling teeth and we need to start educating men of the importance of preconception care prior to having a baby.

Men offered very little advice about sperm health

Unfortunately many fertility clinics and healthcare practitioners in general, are giving very little advice and information around what men can do to improve their sperm. Many healthcare professionals are also only focussing on delivering general advice to highlight the known lifestyle risks for poor sperm quality. More advice around preconception care is needed.

Preconception care for men is a must

There is now lots of research about the importance of preconception care for men and lots of research on the importance of a healthy diet, lifestyle changes and the role of antioxidants and amino acids for sperm health and sperm quality.

This recent study could add to the ways that men can improve their sperm quality and help with the outlook for men with known sperm issues. This recent study could also add to existing research and could also lead to better ways to reduce the damaging impact of modern living on reproductive health. We really do need for all couples to know, that of all infertility cases, at least 50 per cent of the issue is due to male factors and poor quality sperm.

Lycopene increases sperm quality

This is the first ever double-blind randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of giving men a bio-enhanced form of lycopene (called LactoLycopene) to see if it helped with sperm quality. The team from the university of Sheffield discovered that the lycopene supplementation made no significant difference to sperm count and concentrations. However the rapid progressive motile sperm and the sperm with normal morphology increase by around 40% in response to the lactolycopene intervention. Rapid progressive sperm and morphology are the two most important parameters for sperm quality and for increasing chances of fertilisation and pregnancy.

During the 12-week trial half the recipients took LactoLycopene supplements and the other half took identical placebo (dummy pills) every day for 12 weeks. Neither the researchers nor the volunteers knew who was receiving the LactoLycopene treatment and who was receiving the placebo. Sperm and blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial. The researchers were surprised by the improvement in the sperm quality shown by the results. The improvement in morphology and rapid progressive sperm was dramatic after lycopene supplementation.

What are Lycopenes?

Lycopene can be found in some fruits and vegetables, but the main source in the diet is from tomatoes. However, the bioavailability of lycopene from fresh tomatoes is low, but this is enhanced by a special natural processing technique of heating and infusing tomatoes with oil. As such, this study used lactolycopene, the main ingredient of which lycopene is embedded in a special protein mix for enhanced intestinal absorption.

This was the first properly designed and controlled study of the effect of LactoLycopene on semen quality, and it has spurred researchers to want to do more research into lycopene and well as other antioxidants and amino acids that may help with sperm quality. The research also shows the role these antioxidants play in helping inhibit the damaging effects of oxidation and oxidative stress.

Oxidation and Oxidative Stress Damage Sperm

Oxidation and oxidative stress is a known cause of damage to sperm and the sperm DNA. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that is potentially inhibiting oxidation and the damage of oxidative stress causes to sperm quality. Researchers believe this antioxidant is the key to improvements in sperm quality seen in this trial and could be an answer to the cause of many male fertility problems. More research is needed and the research team is hoping to embark on a new study as soon as possible.

Final Word

As part of my fertility program all males are educated on the importance of preconception care and about optimum sperm health. All men on my fertility program are given antioxidants and supplements that have been shown to assist with sperm quality and maintain optimum sperm health. Men are 50% of the equation of making a baby and why all men need to be included in any preconception care and any program to assist couples in having a baby.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Reproductive Medicine

-The International Fertility Experts

 

Journal Reference:

  1. Elizabeth A. Williams, Madeleine Parker, Aisling Robinson, Sophie Pitt, Allan A. Pacey. A randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of lactolycopene on semen quality in healthy malesEuropean Journal of Nutrition, 2019; DOI: 1007/s00394-019-02091-5
IBS

Managing Irritable Bowel Syndrome & Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Irritable Bowel Syndrome, or IBS, is a problem that affects a staggering 3million people, or more, in Australia and about 20% of people world-wide. It is a condition that has baffled doctors for years. There is no single cause, no specific treatment and, as yet, no cure.

But first let’s look at some general information on IBS.

IBS is more common in women than in men and occurs more often in younger people. IBS is usually ongoing, and there are some times when symptoms are worse than other times. Having IBS does not mean you are more likely to develop colon cancer later in life.

Symptoms of IBS

Some people with IBS mainly have constipation, others have diarrhoea. Many people with IBS alternate between periods of constipation and diarrhoea.

Symptoms include:

  • Cramps and bloating in your lower abdomen, which usually get better after having a bowel motion or passing wind
  • Pain that can be a sharp or dull feeling
  • Constipation: feeling that you have not managed to empty your bowels completely, having bowel motions less often, straining to pass a motion or passing small, hard stools
  • Diarrhoea: having bowel motions too often and passing loose stools
  • Flatulence, or wind, and/or rumbling noises from your abdomen
  • Needing to rush to the toilet
  • Headaches
  • Mucus in your stools

Some of these symptoms can also be from other inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohns disease and Ulcerative Colitis, which sometimes get categories as IBS.

But some of the symptoms above can also be part of having endometriosis and many women who are diagnosis with IBS, in fact have endometriosis. They then have all the testing for IBS, Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis etc (colonoscopy etc) as these don’t find anything and then these women are often told by doctors they are at a loss to what is happening. This is why endometriosis often takes up to 12 years for definitive diagnosis, which is terrible.

IBS triggers

The cause of IBS is not known, but certain things can trigger its symptoms, including:

  • Stress
  • Depressed mood
  • Food poisoning
  • Tummy bug
  • Virus
  • Certain foods and drinks
  • Some medication
  • Some people find avoiding alcohol, caffeine and nicotine can reduce their IBS symptoms

As said before some women suffer more acutely from symptoms of IBS just before, or during, their menstrual cycle. IBS symptoms can also mean that they have a condition called Endometriosis. Many times these conditions can be overlooked and they can be present at the same time, along with bladder issues as well.

Lactose and wheat intolerance and wheat may be a cause and needs to be assessed before permanent changes to diet are made. Wheat grains are inflammatory to the bowel anyway and they should be removed if anyone does have inflammatory bowel issues.

Treatments

There are a few medical treatments available but results can be varying. Many people with severe IBS end up on steroids to settle inflammation in the bowel. There are also other medications to slow bowel motility and reduce inflammation as well.

Dietary and lifestyle changes are a must for the treatment of IBS. See my post on what real nutrition should be food what a good diet should be like.

There is, however complementary therapies that can bring great results.

The complementary medicine unit at the University of Western Sydney ran a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to determine whether Chinese Herbal medicine was of any benefit in the treatment of IBS. Chinese medicine has traditionally been used for thousands of years to treat many disease states, including inflammatory bowel conditions.

The results were stunning. More than 70% of patients taking the Chinese herbs improved. The results were published in the Journal of the American Medicine Association.

There are also other complementary therapies and treatments that may be assistance and combined with medical interventions, or other interventions mentioned above.

Studies have shown that strain specific probiotic bacteria have induced remission in inflammatory bowel conditions such as ulcerative colitis and IBS. But, this needs consultation with a qualified healthcare professional to treat disease properly. Self-prescribing is not an option for this disease that affects over 3 million people here in Australia alone.

With any disease state such as IBS, there needs to be an individualised approach, not a one treatment fix all approach, because everyone is uniquely difference in their symptoms they experience and what their triggers are. There also needs to be a multimodality approach because many times IBS overlaps with conditions such as endometriosis for women, and other inflammatory conditions in men.

If you have IBS or inflammatory bowel disease and need help and assistance in managing your symptoms better, please give my friendly staff a call and they will explain how I may be able to assist you.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

References

  1. Treatment of IBs with chinese herbal medicine -Alan Bensoussan, MSc; Nick J. Talley, MD; Michael Hing, MBBS, FRACP; Robert Menzies, PhD; Anna Guo, PhD; Meng Ngu, PhD http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=188145
  2. VSL#3 Probiotic-Mixture Induces Remission in Patients with Active Ulcerative Colitis- (American Journal of Gastroenterology 2005;100:1-8)
  3. Investigations and treatment of Endometriosis- Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2008
  4. Bensoussan A, Myers SP. Towards a Safer Choice: The Practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Australia . Sydney, Australia: University of Western Sydney Macarthur; 1996.
  1. Yu ZX, Wang K, Li FP. Clinical trial of Chinese herbal capsule for 157 cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Chin J Integrated Tradit West Med.1991;11:170-171.
  1. Liu ZK. Chinese herbal medicine treatment for 120 cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Chin J Integrated Tradit West Med.1990;10:615.
  1. Shi ZQ. Combination treatment of Chinese and Western medicine for 30 cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Chin J Integrated Tradit West Med.1989;9:241.
  2. Chen DZ. Tong Xie Yao Fang with additions in treating 106 cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Nanjing Med University J.1995;15:924.
  3. Xu RL. Clinical realisations during the diagnosis and treatment of 55 cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Shanxi J Tradit Chin Med.1995;11:10-11.
weight loss 2036966 1920

Being Overweight, or Underweight, Can Adversely Affect Fertility

As mentioned in previous posts about fertility and weight, it is important to have healthy weight and waist size when trying to conceive. It is important to address dietary and lifestyle issues in order to be in health weight and waist range before trying to conceive.

Healthy Waist Size

Healthy waist range for a woman is 80cm (from the belly button around)

Healthy waist range for a man is 94cm (from the belly button around)

If a woman’s waist size is about 88cm and a man’s waist size if above 102cm then they are in what we call “metabolic syndrome”

This increases their chances of diabetes, heart disease, depression, gynaecological conditions (PCOS, endometriosis etc), sperm issues, egg quality issues, reproductive issues, increased miscarriage, increased risk of certain cancers and of course…. infertility.

Body fat and how it affects fertility

Excess body fat (now known as obestrogens) can disrupt hormones and fertility and can have a negative effect on egg and sperm quality.

Similarly being underweight and low body fat can affect fertility outcomes too. Body fat has a regulatory role in reproduction and a moderate loss of fat, from 10% to 15% below normal weight for height, may delay the menstrual cycle, completely stop the menses altogether and inhibit ovulation. Both dieting and excessive exercise can reduce body fat below the minimum amount and lead to infertility. But this is reversible with weight gain, increased body fat and reduction of intensive exercise, or both.

A moderate reduction in body fat, not just weight, for those overweight, can increase fertility and chances of pregnancy exponentially. Similarly an increase in body fat for those that are underweight, and who don’t have enough body fat, can increase their fertility and chances of pregnancy as well.

This goes for men too. Increased body fat, or not enough body fat can affect hormone production and fertility and can affect sperm quality and sperm production.

This is why preconception care and healthy screening and weight and waist management is so important before trying to conceive. This should also be a part of any fertility program and is definitely part of my fertility program for all couples.

Are you in healthy waist range?

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Reproductive Medicine and Women’s Health Medicine

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

01 Dr Andrew Orr 1

pregnancy 1410705 1920

Why Excess Body Fat and Obesity is The Enemy of Fertility

Excess body fat and obesity is the enemy of fertility and it is something that needs to be talked about. Despite what anyone tells you, being overweight, or being obese significant affect on fertility and it can also affect the future health of offspring. This is a fact and we need to talk about it more and bring more awareness to this subject. This is why I have been focusing on this very important subject a lot more lately.

At present up to 70% (or more) of Australians are either overweight, or obese, so we can no longer ignore what the consequences of these statistics mean. We know that excess weight and excess body fat is linked to serious health consequences, but we need to talk about how it affects fertility and decreases the chances of obtaining a live birth.

Overweight, or obese men and women have higher levels of body fat and higher levels of the hormones leptin. As I have mentioned in previous posts, this excess body fat is also now referred to as obestrogens, as they cause the same health consequences as environmental estrogens (known as endocrine disruptors). These excess body fats and higher levels of leptin do impair production of sex hormones and also reduces fertility. It can also lead to poorer sperm quality, poorer egg quality and can also increase the risk of miscarriage. The more excess body fat, the greater the risk of fertility difficulties a couple will have. This is a fact. Despite what your specialist, your doctor, Dr Google, or your own mind tells you, this is a fact and we need to start being real about it. It isn’t about fat shaming either. It is to help people who are struggling with fertility and to help them seek the help they need to have a baby.

Excess body fat, especially excess abdominal fat is also linked to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and other health issues. It also interferes with the regulation of sex hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).  This can then increase the risk of irregular cycles, PCOS, endometriosis, sperm quality issues, miscarriage and other factors affecting fertility.

While the facts around excess body fat, excess weight and obesity are very real and can often seem overwhelming, there is some good news for couples that are overweight and obese.

Dietary and lifestyle changes and fat loss interventions which also includes exercise, can significantly improve fertility outcomes. It can also help with regular menstrual cycles, PCOS, endometriosis, sperm issues, egg quality, mental health and many other health issues. It definitely improves the chances of pregnancy and lessens the chances of miscarriage.

Research has shown that fat loss of up to 7%, for those that are overweight, achieved by diet, exercise and lifestyle changes, can improve overall health, fertility and improve chances of a successful live birth.

There is no fast track, or easy way to lose excess body fat and people need to face the facts, face reality and just get in a do it. The best ways to do this are as follows:

Seek the help of trained healthcare professionals that can help you with dietary and lifestyle changes and can help monitor you and support you rather than blaming and shaming. It also helps to hold you accountable and keep you motivated.

Do any dietary, exercise or lifestyle changes as a couple. It is much easier if you both do it and can support each other in any changes. You can also hold each other accountable and also see the changes in each other.

Set realistic goals and be realistic about how long things will take. It is no use setting unrealistic goals and having an unrealistic perception of how long things will take to change it your body. This will only set you up for failure and chances of rebounding. It is about one day at a time and one step at a time.

Seek the help of a trained healthcare professional to educate you on what good nutrition, good dietary and lifestyle habits are. The more educated you are about what a good diet is, the better your chances are of eating the right foods and achieving your fat loss goals

You need to exercise as well. Diet changes alone will only help to a point and you do need to do some form of resistance work to help burn fat. While walking is great, it doesn’t burn fat and increase lean muscle like resistance exercise (weights etc) can. You may even need to see a personal trainer to get yourself started and be held accountable.

Have access to fresh foods and means to increase your levels of physical activity. It is important to have access to good fresh foods and stay away from the processed and refined foods. You also need to have ways of exercising and keeping your body active and burning fat.

It is all about perception versus reality. You need to be real about your weight, your body fat and then set realistic goals to lose the excess body fats. Just remember it is about being proactive. Nobody is going to do this for you, but they can help encourage you to be healthy and make better dietary and lifestyle choices.

Lastly, men and women are twice as likely to achieve healthy weight and waist range and proper dietary and lifestyle choices if their partner does it too. The journey to having a baby requires a couple to do it and the same goes for weight loss and achieving healthy body fat and healthy waist range too.

Take care

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Reproductive Medicine and Women’s Health Medicine

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

01 Dr Andrew Orr