Consequences of PCOS

The Serious Health Complications Of Unmanaged PCOS

Just like endometriosis, there is a lot of the information about PCOS, but it is more about the symptoms, time to diagnosis and future fertility outcomes.

While it is necessary to educate people about these things, nobody is really talking about the serious health complications of unmanaged PCOS.

There have been some big changes to the diagnosis of PCOS, but still it can often take up to 3 years or more to get a proper diagnosis. While it may not take as long as endometriosis to be diagnosed, it still means that many women are being missed and dismissed in those year before they are finally diagnosed.

Like Endometriosis, some women with PCOS are never diagnosed and some women do not have any symptoms and can have very regular cycles etc. Women can have PCOS and endometriosis together, alongside other issues such as adenomyosis as well.

There are serious health consequences with unmanaged PCOS

The main thing I am trying to bring to everyone’s attention is that it doesn’t matter what disease you have, if it is left unmanaged, or not managed properly, it can have some pretty serious consequences of ones fertility, and mental and physical health.

PCOS is not exception. While the symptoms of PCOS are not as bad as those suffered with endometriosis, or adenomyosis, women can still suffer in many other ways. The long-term consequences of unmanaged PCOS can be very serious and can also lead to early death (cardiovascular disease, stroke etc.) and also lead to certain cancers.

Risk factors

PCOS is thought to have a genetic component. People who have a mother or sister with PCOS are more likely to develop PCOS than someone whose relatives do not have the condition. This family link is the main risk factor.

Then there is the insulin resistance factor with PCOS as well. Insulin resistance is a primary driver of PCOS and there is now evidence to show that most, if not all, women with PCOS have insulin resistance by default. Again this appears to be through genetic or family links of someone having PCOS, or having diabetes in the family tree etc.

Excess insulin is thought to affect a woman’s ability to ovulate because of its effect on androgen production. Research has shown that women with PCOS have low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens.

This is why diet and lifestyle interventions are so important in the overall management of PCOS. It is because these changes help with the insulin resistance.

There are other risk factors such as obesity, stress, nutritional deficiencies and sedentary lifestyle. Have a look at my page about more information on PCOS and risk factors etc (Click Here)

The Common Symptoms of PCOS

It is important to know what the common symptoms of PCOS are, so that women and healthcare professionals alike know what to look for.

The common symptoms of PCOS include:

  • irregular menses
  • excess androgen levels
  • acne, oily skin, and dandruff
  • excessive facial and body hair growth, known as Hirsutism
  • female pattern balding
  • skin tags
  • acanthosis nigricans, or dark patches of skin
  • sleep apnea
  • high stress levels
  • depression and anxiety
  • high blood pressure
  • infertility
  • Increased risk of miscarriage
  • decreased libido
  • high cholesterol and triglycerides
  • fatigue
  • insulin resistance
  • type 2 diabetes
  • pelvic pain
  • weight management difficulties including weight gain or difficulty losing weight

Early Intervention and management is crucial

The causes of PCOS are unclear, but early intervention, early diagnosis and early management, can help relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. Anyone who may have symptoms of PCOS should see their healthcare provider, women’s healthcare specialist, or PCOS expert.

Coping with the symptoms of PCOS and managing the treatments can be demanding ands sometimes stressful. But, to then learn there can be serious complications and added risks to your health from PCOS not being managed properly can be distressing.

Be educated and get proper help

Just like any disease state just being aware, and being educated there are added risks is an important first step. Once you have the common symptoms of PCOS under control then you can turn your mind to thinking about ways to prevent further complications.  The good news is that many of the treatments and management strategies you will use for your PCOS will also help to prevent many of the serious complications. A qualified healthcare professional, or a healthcare practitioner who is an expert in PCOS should be managing anyone with PCOS. Nobody should be trying to manage PCOS on their own without some form of professional help.

The serious complications of PCOS

Women with PCOS are thought to be at higher risk of having future heart disease or stroke. They are also at higher risk of diabetes, endometrial cancer and other cancers too.

What are the serious complications of unmanaged PCOS?

Besides the risk factors already mentioned, the serious complications of unmanaged PCOS are as follows:

  • Weight gain or obesity
  • Prediabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Metabolic syndrome (generally having at least two of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, high fasting blood glucose)
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Other cancers (breast, ovarian)
  • Sleep apnoea
  • Inflammation of the liver
  • Infertility
  • Increased Pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia
  • Increased gestational diabetes
  • Increased risk of stroke
  • Increased risk of sudden death
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Psychological disorders
  • Mood disorders (anxiety, depression)

What you can do

If you are worried about the serious complications of unmanaged PCOS it is helpful to:

  • Get your symptoms of PCOS under control as a first step
  • Discuss any concerns with your healthcare practitioner, or women’s health/PCOS expert.
  • Learn about and understand your risks
  • Learn that early intervention and early healthcare management is the key to assisting any disease state.
  • Have your blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol checked regularly
  • Seek guidance and support to help with weight management and dietary and lifestyle management.
  • Remember that all body types can have PCOS, not just those who are overweight.
  • Do not try to manage the symptoms of PCOS on your own.

Final word

If you do need assistance with PCOS and would like my help, please call my friendly staff and found out how I may be able to assist you. There are options for online consultations and consultations in person.

As mentioned before the key to any disease is early intervention and early healthcare management and you taking the first steps to get the help you need. PCOS also needs a multimodality approach. There are many facets to it. Don’t put off your health. Just pick up the phone and make that appointment today. There can be some very serious consequences if you do, especially for some conditions such and PCOS.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Women’s Health Medicines

-The PCOS Experts

References
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  2. Meyer C et al. Overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome have evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Oct;90(10):5711-6
  3. McCartney CR, Marshall JC. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2016;375:54-64
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fertility 1

Fertility- Before you go any further, you are forgetting one thing…….. The Male

In this video blog I explains how I often get emails from patients and practitioners, needing assistance with fertility issues. The only thing is, it is often only from the female perspective and I have to then explain this to people, or these practitioners. So often, as I am hearing their case study, or patients telling their story, I have to politely stop them and explain “Fertility Before you go any further, I can see what the issue is, you are forgetting one thing…… The Male”

Being completely honest, 95% of the time it is the full female history I am hearing and absolutely no mention of the male. The male is always 50% of the fertility picture, unless there is absolute infertility with the female (medically diagnosed infertility)

Fertility issues require proper evaluation of both the male and female, otherwise crucial things get overlooked. It takes a sperm and an egg to make a baby, not just an egg. Besides that it is a legal and ethical requirement to investigate the female and male. You cannot just investigate and treat the female. Have a listen to the latest video (below) of this very important subject.

If you do need assistance with fertility and reproductive issues, please give my staff a call and find out how my fertility program may be able to assist you and your partner.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Reproductive Medicine

-The International Fertility Experts

 

Fertility

Let’s Talk About The Facts Of Fertility & The Fertility Profession

Wouldn’t you love to sit down for 2-3 hours with a fertility expert and cover everything you need to know for your fertility and journey to become a parent?

Wouldn’t you love to have a fertility expert that can not only talk to you about all the medical investigations, medical protocols, genetics and genetic testing, hormones and medications etc, but can also talk you about preconception care, nutrition, diet, lifestyle changes, nutritional supplements, complementary medicines, acupuncture, counselling and other modalities?

Wouldn’t you just love it if someone could listen to your individual needs, listen to your full history, be empathetic to your journey so far, be there to guide you every step of way, and then make sure you are looked after on every level possible?

Well, you can have this, but before I talk about how, let’s talk about the facts about fertility and the fertility profession first.

Let’s talk about the facts

I never hold back from telling people the cold hard facts on any health topic I talk about. It may, or may not upset some people, but the truth is that it needs to be said all the same. People deserve to know the reality about every health condition and their reproductive system. For this post I am going to talk about the cold hard facts of the fertility profession and facts around fertility.

The fact is that many people are lucky to get half hour with a fertility specialist/expert when they decide that need help in having a baby. Some may only get a 15-minute appointment with a fertility specialist/expert and are lucky to get a few questions answered. Then at each of your next 15 minutes appointments, people are trying to cram in as many questions as they can before they are escorted to the door, because the next patient has arrived.

Many medical fertility specialists/experts have no idea about diet, lifestyle advice, preconception care etc, and the one subject that they did learn years ago at college is now a lost and distant memory. Basically it becomes a case of not my area, not my concern.

People then go home and arm themselves with a degree in ‘doctor google’ and then desperately search for answers themselves. They then end up on all manner of sites and support groups with a plethora of misinformation and angst. Have read of my post about Fertility and Dr Google 

This then leads to people searching for a local naturopath, nutritionist, Chinese medicine practitioner etc, trying to cover off on all the complementary medicines, nutrition, dietary advice and nutritional and herbal supplements.

Then this can lead to the case of too many cooks spoiling the broth, too many with differing ideas, or no idea at all, and the turf war on fertility begins.

The medical specialist damns the complementary medicines. The complementary medicine practitioner damns the medical specialist and the couple, or individual, is then caught in the middle. Dazed and confused, the couple/individual has to make a choice of whom they are going to believe and whom they are going to continue to see. But does it have to be this way?

Health professionals should be working together, for the greater good of the patient, not working against each other. Nobody has all the answer and a symbiotic relationship can greatly increase a couples success of having a child.

No wonder many couples/individuals don’t know where to turn to, who to believe and then end up searching for answers themselves. Worst still, while all this confusion and mud slinging continues, the couple/individual still have not get the answers they need, let alone the baby they are desperately wanting.

The fertility profession is largely unregulated

1.The medical side of things

What many are unaware of, especially here in Australia, is that the fertility profession is largely unregulated. Anyone can say they do fertility work and yet not have the qualifications to back it up. Only one state here is regulated, where you have to have what we call a CREI (Certificate of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility).

But let’s face it, it is a certificate, not a postgraduate degree and they are very easy to get. But now, many have to have a Masters in Reproductive Medicine as well. But this is only in one state mind you. In all other states, there is nothing stopping anyone doing fertility.

So what this means is that anyone can go and work in a fertility clinic, without the proper extra training to do so. We see obstetricians often do the change to fertility, without having to do extra training, and are basically learning on the job as they go along. The patients then become the guinea pigs and test cases while they are learning on the job. It really should not happen. Sure, they have some reproductive training, back when they studied, but fertility is a very different area to obstetrics and pregnant women.

We also are now even see some GP’s do the sea change to some of these bulk bill IVF clinics and then are consulting with people are their fertility. Many of these couples are then led to believe they are seeing a fertility specialist, when in fact they are just seeing a GP, without any formal training in fertility and reproductive. For many of these, the last time they did any study on fertility, was back in university, and it was probably one subject, if that.

2. The complementary medicine side

But, at the same time, this is not just an issue that is related to the medical side of things. There is just as many complementary medicine practitioners saying that they do fertility, when in fact they have had no formal training, and many often have no idea. They are doing the same thing of learning at they go along, and the patients are the guinea pigs.

Many of these complementary medicine practitioners are lucky to have studied one subject in fertility and reproduction. Many of their lecturers have no formal qualification in fertility and reproduction either. They are then leaving college, or university, and then setting themselves up as experts in fertility.

Many are literally setting up overnight, with no clinical experience, or post graduate certification in fertility, and then trying to say that they do fertility. Daily, I see some of these practitioners not even knowing the basics, yet are out there trying to treat people for fertility issues. I often comment on how some of these practitioners are out there trying to have a crack at it with no idea what so ever. This should not be happening.

There needs to be better regulation

It is a big issue for couples trying to wade their way through the murky waters of the fertility profession. It really should not be allowed to happen. But again, it is all due to lack of regulation and laws preventing it from happening.

As I said, it is on both sides and not just related to one profession. There desperately needs to be more tougher and tighter regulation with the fertility profession, so that couple know that when they are seeing a fertility expert, they actually do have the post graduation training and degree, as well as the clinical experience too. The only good thing here in Australia, is that nobody can advertise that they are a specialist, unless they have a specialisation. If they are caught advertising they are something that they are not, there are harsh penalties around this.

But seriously, this would not happen in any other profession. You would not see a backyard mechanic, or a backyard hairdresser, or someone without the appropriate levels of training?
Yet, why are people not checking who they are seeing for fertility, and just presuming on face value. Your fertility and reproduction is far more important than your car, or your hair. I hope people get what I am trying to say here.

So how do you know whom to see?

This is the million-dollar question and why I always say to patients to be careful. It really is a case of buyer beware.

What you need to do is ask the big questions and do not see someone unless they can answer all the questions and tick all the boxes.

  • Here are some of the things you need to ask:
  • Does you fertility practitioner have a post graduate degree in Reproductive Medicine?
  • Can you please see a copy of their degree?
  • What is their official academic title?
  • What extra study have they done in fertility and reproductive medicine?
  • How long have they been practicing for?
  • Is the practitioner a recent graduate (medical, or complementary medicine)
  • How many fertility patients have they helped?
  • What experience has the practitioner had, and who has mentored them, or trained them?
  • What was their motivation for getting in this area of healthcare?
  • Do they work in with a fertility/IVF clinic?
  • Do they have a symbiotic relationship with a fertility/IVF clinic?
  • Does the practitioner know all the fertility investigations, fertility terms, drugs, hormones, procedures, and all things related to fertility?

These questions are just some of the important questions someone should be asking any practitioner, medical or complementary medicine, before they decide to seek their help to assist them having a baby.

See someone who specialises in fertility and reproductive medicine

I also generally tell people that when seeing someone for fertility, the practitioner should specialise in that area and not have their hands in too many pies so to speak. If seeing a medical specialist, you should try and see someone who just does fertility work on, and who isn’t trying to juggle a busy obstetrics practice at the same time. I see this happen often, where patients are left waiting while a specialist is off delivering babies and the couples are left waiting for hours. Someone like this cannot give you his or her full attention and why I believe you need to see someone whom just does fertility work only.

But again, you just need to do your homework with whomever you see. This goes for complementary medicine practitioners as well. Find out if their primary focus is fertility and not trying to be someone who does a bit of everything. Remember, don’t forget to check that they have post graduate training and experience in reproductive medicine and fertility.

Many couples are having the basics missed

Many couples I see, are often at the point of desperation, and some are also at the point of giving up. I feel sorry for those who get to this point, when in fact it is because some of the basics just have not been investigated.

Being desperate can also lead to bad decisions and also for couples to be exploited by big fertility clinics and the hard sell on offering a solution to their fertility. The fact is that nobody has all the answers, there is no magic pill, and IVF is not a cure for infertility, and we need to start being real about this.

There is often the case of expectation versus reality and many are exploited because they are desperate. We need to be very real that while IVF etc, can help couples have a baby, it really is not a cure for infertility, and it cannot help everyone.

But at the same time many couples issue really are that they have not have the basics done, or proper evaluations done, purely because the person they are seeing is a properly trained in fertility and reproductive medicine. That is a fact.

Males are not exempt from fertility issues

I’ve talked about this often and it is one of my biggest annoyances with the whole fertility profession and men who do not need to be part of the fertility journey. Have a look at my previous posts on this (click here) 

The fact is that many men are not evaluated properly and are not having the basics done with regards to fertility testing. Women are being focussed on and the male is often almost excluded from the process. Let’s face it, some men are literally in denial and excluding themselves as well. I honestly do not know why some women chose to be with men who refuse to be part of the process. Their actions speak volumes.

The long and short of it is that men are often the biggest part of the reason why a couple is not conceiving. Up to 50% -60% of fertility issues are related to men and up to 85% of miscarriage and fertilisation issues are related to chromosomal and DNA factors related to men. Yet many men are under-investigated, or not investigated at all. I see it so often where couples have literally been trying for years and years, and then we find out it is the man who is the issue. Yet all along both the fertility practitioner, and the woman’s partner alike have blamed the woman as being the primary issue. I see this so often and it actual disgusts me. Why should women be blamed for all fertility issues, when men are an equal, and often greater part?

Proper fertility evaluation and testing

I’ve spoken about this in previous posts and it is so important that couples are evaluated properly. Personally I believe that everything that should be done is done up front and at the beginning. So many couples end up finding issues years later, which should have been found in the beginning.

Proper testing should involve at least the following:

  • Full blood testing and screening
  • Hormone assay
  • Scans and imaging
  • Surgical intervention (Laparoscopy, hysteroscopy and dye studies)
  • STI screening
  • Semen analysis
  • Sperm chromatin Assay (SCAT)
  • Full genetic screening
  • Advanced genetic carrier screening
  • Others

I make sure that all my patients have been screened and investigated properly on all levels, for both the man and the woman, not just the man.

You can also see my previous post about the importance of proper genetic screening as well (click here) 

We do have same sex couples and single women seeking help now, and it is still equally important that all concerned are screened properly. Sometimes one of the partners in a same sex relationship may have an issue which prevents them from conceiving, so you have to screen the other partner just in case. It is all about screening and proper evaluations and investigations.

Expectation versus reality

While we have talked about the fertility profession, we also need couples to be real about their chances too. As mentioned before, couples do need to be aware that IVF is not a cure for infertility and that is cannot help everyone. It can help many couples that would never have been able to conceive naturally too.

Age 

We also need for couples to be real about age related fertility, as that is the biggest issue as far as fertility and conception is concerned. The older you are, the harder it is going to be to fall pregnant. No matter is you are doing IVF, or not, age is a big factor in couples being unsuccessful. The older you are, the poorer quality your eggs and sperm are, and the more random chromosomal/DNA errors you get in embryos.

Preconception care

There are other issues with diet and lifestyle that need to be addressed too. Couples that are overweight are going to struggle more with being able to conceive. This is why proper pre-conception care is so important and why I have talked about it often before. We need for couples to look at their diet, their lifestyle, their alcohol intake, their stress levels etc. All these things in combination can affect ones fertility and chances of having a baby. Have a look at my post about the importance of preconception care 

Not everyone will be able to have a baby

There are also those couples, that despite the best medical interventions and help, that they may not be able to fall pregnant. This is really sad, but it is a harsh reality that some will have to face. You can read my post about why IVF cycles fail

But now they are more ways to have a baby then ever, with donor eggs, donor sperm, donor embryos and even surrogates.

Final word

There is a lot to know about fertility and many couples are unaware of the lack of regulation around the fertility profession. Many are literally at breaking point and for many of these it is really through lack of proper investigations, or seeing someone who is not properly qualified to be doing fertility work.

We also need couples to take responsibility for their own health and lifestyle and also be real about age related infertility too. It is all really overwhelming for couples, but the fact is that we still need to talk about it.

Lastly, you need to do your homework, when going to see someone for help with fertility. As mentioned previously the fertility profession is largely unregulated and there are a lot of practitioners out there, medical and complementary medicine, who really are dabbling, or who are not adequately qualified to be assisting you.

How I can help?

If you do need assistance with fertility issues, and do want to see someone with a masters of reproductive medicine and years of clinical experience, please give my staff a call and find out how my fertility program may be able to assist you. You can also look at some of my posts about my fertility program on my website too.  You can do our full fertility program or you can now do our new 3 phase fertility program too. There are also meet and greet appointments before joining the fertility program. Again for more information, speak to my friendly staff, or drop us an email.

I hope this helps those trying to have a baby better understand the fertility profession on all levels and seek the best help possible.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-Master of Reproductive Medicine

-Fertility Expert

-The International Fertility Experts

-No Stone Left Unturned

 

 

 

 

 

genetics and fertility

Understanding How Genetics Play a Major Part in Fertility & Reproduction

Understanding how genetics plays a major part in fertility and reproduction is very important. Many couples are completely unaware that their fertility issues and inability to conceive may in fact be from genetic, or hereditary issues that have not been screened for.

When it comes to fertility and being able to conceive more and more couples are now struggling. Some of this is due to increased stress levels, poor diet and lifestyle, increase alcohol consumption, lack of preconception care and many other factors. However, one key area that is not often talked about, or even known to many is genetic factors, chromosomal factors and DNA issues passed on through our sperm and eggs.

Fertility and reproduction is one of the hardest areas of medicine to understand. I am sure many people think that they understand it, but even with years of study and clinical experience, some questions just cannot be answered at this present time. No amount of “Dr Google” searching is going to bring answers for many couples and this is something that needs to be discussed more. Unless you have done years of study and clinical research into fertility and reproduction, you cannot understand the finer details and intricacies of conception. Even then, some answers are just not available to anyone at this present time.

The Reality of Fertility and Reproduction

The reality of fertility and reproduction is that just because an egg and sperm are put together, it does not mean that an embryo will be formed. Even if an embryo is formed, it does not mean that it will become a baby. Even if an embryo meets scientific grading categories (grade 1-4 etc), it still does not mean that the inner make up of that embryo is chromosomally viable. Even if the embryo is tested to be chromosomally viable (via PGD/PGS testing), it still does not mean that the embryo will go on to become a baby. This is the hardest thing for people to get their heads around and why we need to discuss this more. Quite simply, something that is supposed to seem easy really isn’t that easy at all. Reproduction and having babies is not as easy as many have led us to believe.

Chromosomal Errors

One of the biggest factors in embryos not developing, or IVF cycles failing, or even natural conception not working is chromosomal errors at the embryo stage. Even if both parents have normal karyoptype (46XX and 46XY) it does not mean that they cannot produce random chromosomal and genetic errors in their sperm and eggs. The thing is, the older we get, the more these errors occur and the harder it is to fall pregnant. An abnormal embryo with and abnormal number is cells is called aneuploidy. When an embryo has the correct number of cells it is called euploidy. Unfortunately, many couples are producing high numbers of aneuploidy embryos and this is why they are struggling to conceive. As mentioned before, just because the outer features of the embryo look fine, it does not mean the inner workings (chromosomes and DNA) are fine.

The Important of Genetic Screening

Speaking about chromosomal and genetics, when couples are struggling with fertility and being able to conceive, one of the biggest factors I see is that couples are not being screened properly. This is screening on all aspects, not just the standard blood tests and fertility investigations. Many couples that come to see me for help for fertility often believe that they have had everything done, yet most times I am finding that they have only had the basics done. Many couples have not even had basic genetic screening for karyoptype and genetic issues such as cystic fibrosis.

Understanding the Coding on DNA

Understanding the coding on the DNA is now having a profound practical impact on the practice of medicine today. This is particularly important in the area of infertility. There is increasing knowledge that there is frequently a major genetic component both from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in couples with infertility or subfertility.

Significant examples include:

  • The demonstration of microdeletions on the Y chromosome in men with low sperm count (oligozoospermia)
  • The identifications of mutations in the Cystic Fibriosis gene in those with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens
  • The high rate of aneuploidy in normally dividing embryos after fertilisation in older infertile couples
  • The presence of an expanded triplet repeat in the androgen receptor in some men with low sperm counts.

Without seeing someone who has all this  knowledge of the molecular and genetic basis  of fertility many couples will continually have troubles trying to fall pregnant and may possible end up with repeated failed cycles in IVF too. There is so much to genetics and it is often overlooked in all areas of fertility these days. No amount of “Dr Google” is going to give you this information, nor will it give you understanding, unless you have a degree in reproductive medicine, or genetics. I do understand that people get desperate for answers, but unfortunately, sometimes these answers cannot be found by an internet search.

Other Genetic Factors Affecting Fertility

There are also other genetic conditions and chromosomal errors such as balanced translocations, reciprocal translocations, Robertsonian translocations, Turner’s syndrome, Kleinfelter’s syndrome, fragile X syndrome and many more. Again, many who are struggling with fertility issues and struggling to have a baby may not have even had some of these genetic screening done.

When I see couples, I also recommend advanced genetic carrier screening which tests for several hundred more genetically inherited mutations. Many fertility clinics do not recommend couples to do advanced carrier screening. Given that 1 in 22 couples are at risk of a hereditary gene mutation, it is really important to screen couples properly and not just do the basics.

Mutations in Genes

A mutation is a change in the information encoded in the DNA sequence. Such a change may result in the production of an abnormal protein, produce a truncated protein, reduce the levels of that protein, or cause it not to be made at all.

A single gene genetic disorder is one where an alteration in the DNA sequence of only one of the genomes 40,000 genes has resulted in significant pathology and disorders that affect the human body.

Such disorders include cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington disease and familial breast cancer. Although individually these disorders are rare, as a group, they are numerous and therefore important.

Cystic fibrosis, one of the most common autosomal recessive conditions affecting people of Northern European decent has a population incidence of 1 in 2,500.

To date up to 6,000 single gene disorders have been characterized and it is estimated that 14 per 1,000 people suffer from one of these conditions. A person who inherits a mutation in a single gene will carry that mutation in every cell of their body.

Mutations occur when a cell is dividing. The task of correctly copying 6 billion “bits” of information, the number of base pairs in the human genome, is huge and mistakes do occur. It has been established experimentally that these mistakes occur and are uncorrected in one in one billion base-pairs copied (or about 6 errors per cell division).

When a mutation occurs in the coding DNA sequence of a gene it may be a polymorphism with no effect or it may significantly impair the gene function. All mutations are thereafter inherited. Inherited or germ line mutations must be present in the egg or sperm. They are twice as common in sperm as eggs.

 Male Sperm Quality is a Big Part of Fertility Issues

Before everyone jumps to the conclusion that all failed cycles are related to women’s egg quality, I need to make it absolutely clear that men are half of the fertility equation. They are not exempt when conception does not take place, or an IVF cycle fails. As mentioned above many genetic mutations are twice more likely to be present in sperm than eggs. Up to 85% of miscarriage and chromosomally defective embryos are related to chromosomal errors that men have passed through their sperm.

Women’s eggs do have more errors as they get older, and eggs are not as viable as they get older, but men’s sperm are exactly the same. If men are not having their sperm quality managed while trying to fall pregnant, there is half your problem then and there. This is why all men are treated and managed on all levels of their health when doing my fertility program.

Sperm quality is variable and each time a man ejaculates the quality of that sperm can vary by as much as 20% at a given time. This is why men need to be continually looking after their health and sperm health while trying to conceive. Men are actually the bigger part of conception not taking place and we need to talk about this more. Men are not exempt when it comes to making babies.

Creating Life

Life does not begin with conception, but is simply a continuum from living cell to living cell with genetic information being transmitted through the genome from one generation to the next. A failure to achieve this is recognised as infertility.

At conception we are a single fertilized cell resulting from the fertilization of the egg by the sperm. The sperm contributes one copy of nuclear DNA, the egg the other copy and the mitochondrial DNA. That cell proceeds to divide, and over the course of 9 months (32 cell divisions) billions of cells are created, with specialized functions, forming complex tissues and organs that constitute the working human body. That first cell therefore must contain all the information necessary for embryological development, growth from fetus and then growth through to adult life. Without all the right coding and necessary information, life does not get created. This is also the answer to why so many couples are having problems trying to conceive.

The Importance of Seeing a Reproductive Medicine Expert

There are many factors to fertility and reproduction and why it is important that couples see someone who is a fertility expert. The fertility profession is largely unregulated and many who are now practicing in that profession are not experts at all. Many actually do not have further training and qualifications in reproductive medicine and are some of the reason why people are struggling to fall pregnant.

Final Word

Lastly, while we cannot change our chromosomes, or change genetic mutations, we can do things to change and improve our cellular DNA. This is why proper preconception care and preconception programs are so important. Everything we do, we ingest, we think etc, can be passed on to our future offspring via sperm and eggs. Health parents produce healthy sperm and eggs, thus producing healthy babies.

If you need help with being able to conceive, give my friendly staff a call and find out how my fertility program may be able to assist you. I use a ‘No Stone Left Unturned’ approach to assisting couples with fertility issues and will look at every aspect of a couples lives, including genetic and hereditary issues, to help them have the best chance of having a baby.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Reproductive Medicine

-The International Fertility Experts

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Being Overweight, or Underweight, Can Adversely Affect Fertility

As mentioned in previous posts about fertility and weight, it is important to have healthy weight and waist size when trying to conceive. It is important to address dietary and lifestyle issues in order to be in health weight and waist range before trying to conceive.

Healthy Waist Size

Healthy waist range for a woman is 80cm (from the belly button around)

Healthy waist range for a man is 94cm (from the belly button around)

If a woman’s waist size is about 88cm and a man’s waist size if above 102cm then they are in what we call “metabolic syndrome”

This increases their chances of diabetes, heart disease, depression, gynaecological conditions (PCOS, endometriosis etc), sperm issues, egg quality issues, reproductive issues, increased miscarriage, increased risk of certain cancers and of course…. infertility.

Body fat and how it affects fertility

Excess body fat (now known as obestrogens) can disrupt hormones and fertility and can have a negative effect on egg and sperm quality.

Similarly being underweight and low body fat can affect fertility outcomes too. Body fat has a regulatory role in reproduction and a moderate loss of fat, from 10% to 15% below normal weight for height, may delay the menstrual cycle, completely stop the menses altogether and inhibit ovulation. Both dieting and excessive exercise can reduce body fat below the minimum amount and lead to infertility. But this is reversible with weight gain, increased body fat and reduction of intensive exercise, or both.

A moderate reduction in body fat, not just weight, for those overweight, can increase fertility and chances of pregnancy exponentially. Similarly an increase in body fat for those that are underweight, and who don’t have enough body fat, can increase their fertility and chances of pregnancy as well.

This goes for men too. Increased body fat, or not enough body fat can affect hormone production and fertility and can affect sperm quality and sperm production.

This is why preconception care and healthy screening and weight and waist management is so important before trying to conceive. This should also be a part of any fertility program and is definitely part of my fertility program for all couples.

Are you in healthy waist range?

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Master of Reproductive Medicine and Women’s Health Medicine

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

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Could it be PCOS

Could you have PCOS and not know it ?

Nearly everyday I get young teenage girls, or women in general, coming to my clinic with bad acne and/or menstrual issues only to be diagnosed with PCOS.

For many this is a shock, because they have seen multiple doctors, natural medicine practitioners and even medical specialists whom have missed this very common gynaecological/endocrine/reproductive disorder.

I have previously done posts about it taking many years to get a proper diagnosis previously so please take a look at those posts. Click Here

The problem is many are unaware of the long-term implications on their health and their fertility.

So instead of doing a long post of what PCOS is and how to treat it etc, I am just going to do up a short post about what the signs and symptoms are and if you have 1-2 of the symptoms, there is a big possibility that you actually have PCOS.

Of course you need to come and see someone who specialisation in women’s health medicine and issues such as in PCOS,  to help you have it confirmed and diagnosed properly, but we do need to bring about more awareness about this very common gynaecological/endocrine/reproductive disorder that affects many women around the world.

Signs and Symptoms that you could have PCOS
1.Acne
2.Irregular menstrual cycle
3.Skipped menstrual cycles
4.Extended menstrual cycles ( more than 30 plus days)
5.Lack of a menstrual cycle
6.Excess hair growth/Excess Dark hair growth
7.Hair loss
8.Irregular mid-cycle bleeding
9.Ovulation pain
10.Pot belly/ Fluid around the belly/Excess weight around the lower belly
11.Prolonged periods of PMS like symptoms
12.Chronic Pelvic Pain
13.Infertility

All these are common signs that you may have PCOS and you only need to have 1-2 of these symptoms to have it. Some may have all the symptoms while some may just have acne and a cycle that isn’t completely regular.

If you do have any of these signs, you do need to book in and see someone like myself, who specialises in knowing how to diagnose and treat and manage PCOS properly.

Acne is a big pointer to PCOS and often what people come to get treatment for, not realising that actually have a gynaecological/endocrine/reproductive issue.

PCOS is known to be a hereditary disease, but, we also know that diet, lifestyle and stress can be a big part of this disease state developing too.

PCOS can have long term affects on your fertility and can also lead to diabetes and other health complaints, therefore it is so important to get early treatment and early intervention.

In the mean time please have a look at my previous post about PCOS and how to treat it and manage it properly. Click Here

Lastly, please know that period pain and bad ovulation bad is not normal not matter what anyone tells you.

Could you have PCOS?

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-Women’s Health Expert

-No Stone Left Unturned

Dr Andrew Orr Logo Retina 20 07 2016

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Poor Diet, Stress and Sedentary Lifestyle ups Risk of Developing PCOS

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal/endocrine/reproductive issue  and is on the rise due to unhealthy food habits, low physical activity and high stress levels, a new study has found.

It has long been known that insulin resistance and poor dietary and lifestyle habits increase the risk factors for developing PCOS. While being overweight is a risk factor for PCOS, women can be of any body type and still develop PCOS. Women of all body shape can still have poor dietary and lifestyle habits and this is every increasing in our modern world.

Increased refined foods, increased refined grains, increased refined sugars and a sedentary lifestyle are big factors in developing PCOS and also other health conditions such as Diabetes and Heart disease.

We also know that high stress levels can lead to high cortisol levels and high inflammation in the body and then also be drivers of PCOS and many of the conditions that go with this disease state.

What is PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal/endocrine/reproductive disorder among women of reproductive age. Symptoms can include include

  • Irregular or absent menstrual cycle
  • facial hair growth and excess body hair (hirsutism)
  • Acne
  • Increase weight and increase body fat (all body types can have PCOS)
  • Infertility and difficulty conceiving

The condition has many physiological implications as well. It also results in emotional and psychological agony in affected women. For more information on PCOS, have a read of my page about “Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome”

A recently concluded study published on the 12th January 2019, has revealed that uncontrolled or untreated PCOS can raise the risk of diabetes, heart disease and infertility. It has also been concluded that psychological issues such as anxiety and depression can also be the consequence of untreated PCOS. This study fits in with many other recent studies and has prompted changes to PCOS guidelines.

The study was conducted on two groups — one group of 150 patients with untreated/uncontrolled PCOS and the other group of 150 women who had controlled PCOS. The study found that those affected with PCOS followed a poor lifestyle, consumed excessive junk food, had no or low physical activity, more intake of refined carbohydrates and high stress levels.

The study also discovered that there was lack of awareness among the affected women and about 40 per cent were seeking information online. This is a major cause of concern as there is a lot of misinformation on the internet and this is leading to women trying to self-diagnose and go off recommendations of friends and internet groups, rather than healthcare professionals who specialise in this area.

During the study, one group was taking probiotics along with maintaining good lifestyle, while the other group was only maintaining good lifestyle. While both groups showed improvement, the group taking probiotics had additional improvement.

Good gut health and restoring the microbiome is something that I have always promoted in women, not only with PCOS, but other gynaecological/reproductive issues as well. New research has shown that healthy levels of good gut bacteria not only help with restoring the microbiome and gut and digestive health, but also help with reducing inflammation, helping with a healthy immune system and helping with psychological health and wellbeing as well.

Women with PCOS need to be properly diagnosed first and then treatments require a multimodality approach with diet and lifestyle interventions as well. Women with PCOS also need to be properly monitored and managed by a healthcare professional and not go off self-diagnosis and recommendation of untrained people.

The long term consequence of mismanaged, or unmanaged PCOS can be damaging on many levels many patients are not aware of this. The problem these days is that everyone wants a quick fix, or a magic pill, and when things don’t seem to be working, they get impatient and either change treatments, or opt advice from untrained people, or friends and this can be very dangerous.

While self-education is very important, self-management can also be detrimental as conditions such as PCOS requires constant motivation, guidance and proper healthcare management. This was also highlight as part of this recent study.

The study also highlighted that the top 3 issues with PCOS were irregular periods, hirsutism and weight issues. Irregular periods, or absent periods affect about 7 in 10 women with PCOS. Hirsutism or the extra hair on face or other parts of body are seen in 70 per cent cases, while 70 per cent to 80 per cent of women with PCOS are either overweight or obese.

But, women of all body types can have PCOS so this also needs to be noted. Many women put off being investigated for symptoms of PCOS because they believe they need to be overweight to have this condition. There also older healthcare practitioners who still believe this to be the case and this is why it often takes up to 3 years for a woman to be properly diagnosed with PCOS.

There are also other symptoms of PCOS that are often overlooked. Acne, dark patches on the skin on back of neck and others areas, skin tags, hair loss, anxiety, depression, difficulty in getting pregnant, recurrent miscarriages and sleep apnoea are other symptoms that a woman may have PCOS.

What the study concluded

Besides the known factors such and diet and lifestyle, the study highlighted that many women with PCOS suffered in ignorance and isolation. Many women with PCOS are often take up to 3 years to be diagnosed and many are misdiagnosed on the way.

The study also showed that many women with PCOS were unaware of the long term fertility and health consequences, and many hardly have any information given to the about this disease. Many women with PCOS are dependent on internet, friends, other people with the disease etc, as their main source of information.

The study also showed that while routine treatments for PCOS are needed, they can be expensive and less effective than proper dietary and lifestyle control.  Poor diet and lifestyle and increased stress levels are a major reason for the rising prevalence of the disease.

In the study diet and lifestyle changes had a comprehensive impact in controlling other health problems like insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. When women were overweight, or obese, and they reduced body fat, there was also improvement in the symptoms and their testing reports.

Probiotic supplementation also had an overall additional benefit in reducing the abdominal fat, LH:FSH ratio, total testosterone, LPS level, menstrual regularity and also preserving the gut and digestive function. The addition of probiotics to any treatment regime for PCOS needs to be looked at as it could be a new PCOS treatment modality in future.

There are many things women can do to help PCOS and the associated symptoms and the short term and long term health consequences of the disease. While diet and lifestyle interventions needs to be part of this and is the number one treatment for PCOS, women with PCOS do need to be carefully monitored by a qualified healthcare practitioner. This then ensures proper care, management and also accountability and also ensures the disease in properly monitored along with any other changes in symptoms. It also helps with monitoring future fertility and future health issues as well.

If you do need help, or assistance with PCOS, please give my friendly staff a call and find out how I may be able to assist you.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-The PCOS Experts

-The Women’s Health Experts

References

-https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00346

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The Myth of The Barren Woman Runs Deep

The word “Barren” comes originates from the French word ‘Brehaigne’, which means not producing, incapable of producing offspring, infertility, infertile; sterile.

Sounds terrible doesn’t it?

Fortunately very few women are ‘sterile’ and the word “infertility” is often misused in our modern society. Nobody is truly infertile, unless they actually have reproductive organs missing, or have genetic abnormalities that will actually prevent conception from happening etc. When a couple is having trouble conceiving, we should really use the word “sub-fertility” instead of “infertility”

The problem with talking fertility, sub-fertility, or infertility is that we often reference, target, or even blame the woman. Yes, women are often the blame of not being able to conceive a child and therefore the myth of the barren woman still runs deep and is very much in existence and kept alive by all concerned today in our modern world.

But is conception and the ability to conceive a child inherently the fault, or responsibility of the woman?

The answer to that is “No!”, but there is still this expectation, or focus, that not being able to conceive all falls back on a woman. Sometimes women actually wrongly blame themselves, or wrongly take on that responsibility too. Some women will even take on that burden, to protect a partner, who may actually be the main issue.

Then we now have an area of medicine that has its focus as being the woman, because women are the primary driving force for wanting to have a child.  Hence the vicious cycle continues in this terrible loop and then many, practitioners included, buy into the myth of the barren woman and so the cycle continues over and over again.

Well, I am here to tell you that women are not the only part of having a child and that men play just as big a part when it comes to fertility issues and not being able to conceive.

No matter what you get sold, or what BS (bullshit) you are sold, while pulling on your ‘I need a baby heartstrings’, to make you part with your hard earned money, the fact remains, and will always remain, that it takes a sperm and an egg to make a baby. That is basic biology 101 and no matter what someone tries to tell you, sperm quality is just as important as egg quality in this equation.

Every day I see practitioners, both medical and in complementary medicine, focussing in on women as the primary focus of fertility and actually feeding the myth of the barren women by their very actions.

Many times the men are overlooked, or ignored, or completely disregarded in the fertility equation. Not only is this unethical, to just treat and focus on the women when it comes to fertility treatment, but it is highly negligent as well. Men are not born with an inherent right to automatically be able to conceive and worse still, the male sperm levels have fallen by as much as 60% in the last 70 years, with sperm quality levels said to be dropping at an alarming rate.

So why is the focus, the burden, the guilt and the whole emotional baby roller coaster left solely to women?

Well, I have explained that practitioners are to blame, the fertility profession is to blame, society is to blame, guilt is to blame and last of all men are a big part of the issue too.

Men are often to reluctant passengers in the fertility journey and are often very happy to bury their heads in the sand and pass the responsibility of not being able to conceive onto a woman. Then many men are told their sperm is fine, when in fact it is far from being fine.

Over 50% of fertility issues are related to male factors and up to 85% of miscarriage issues may be related to male chromosomal, or DNA issues related to sperm. As I said before, research has now shown that the male sperm quality has fallen by up to 60% over the last 70 years and is actually on the decline. Men are often the bigger part of the fertility picture and it isn’t just the woman at all.

Semen analysis parameters are based on what is needed for Assisted Reproduction (IVF, IUI, ICSI) , not based on what is needed for natural conception and this is where some of the biggest issues lay.

Misinterpretation of semen analysis and misinterpretation of parameters have many men believing they have OK sperm, when in fact it is far from being OK. With modern procedures such as ICSI, we only need a few single sperm to be able to fertilise eggs and this can still be considered ok, because at least there was some sperm to fertilise the egg in the first place.

A few single sperm, or a few hundred sperm, or even a few thousand sperm is not OK when it comes to natural conception. We actually need a few hundred million sperm for it to be OK and even then they need to be motile and they need to be swimming properly (rapid progressive) and actually be of good shape (morphology)

While a semen analysis is often the first part of male fertility evaluation, it is also very limited. While we can look at morphology, motility, concentration, count etc, it does not tell us about the actual quality of the sperm inside. Many sperm may look ‘OK’ via a semen analysis, but inside their DNA integrity is poor and there are high amounts of DNA fragmentation and this can only be measured by a DNA fragmentation analysis. Even then, each time a man ejaculates, the quality of the sperm will be different and can differ by up to 20% in each ejaculate.

We also know that what a man eats, drinks and even his physical and emotional health will affect his sperm quality and that a man’s physical, dietary and emotional health can be passed onto his offspring through the sperm. This is why it is important for a man to get his physical and dietary and emotional health in check way before he tries to conceive a child with his partner.

We always say that the healthier a man is, the healthier his sperm is and the healthier the woman is, the healthier her eggs will be also. A healthy man and a health woman produce healthy babies.

I have been assisting couples with fertility and pregnancy for over 20 plus years now, and helped over 12,500 plus babies into the world,  and I can tell you that conception is not just about the woman. It gets back to basic biology 101 that it takes a sperm and an egg to have a baby.

Even when couples are having issues trying to conceive, or doing IVF, or however they are trying to conceive, there will be some issue on the man’s side and the woman’s side. Unless there is absolute infertility on one side, or the other, there will always be a bit of both the man and woman to work on to assist in being able to conceive.

While the myth of the barren woman runs deep in society, fertility clinics and through the guilt handed down from their fellow sisters and mothers, fertility issues and the right to be able to conceive ‘does not’ fall solely into the hands of a woman, far from it.

Men are an equal part in the fertility equation and men need be held just as accountable when it comes to trying to have a baby, or if there are difficulties in conceiving.

No matter what anyone tells you, a man needs to be part of treatment, management and support of the journey to have a baby.  This is a big part in my multi-modality fertility program.

Fertility isn’t just the responsibility of the woman, it is the responsibility of the man as well and I make sure both the man and the woman are properly investigated, clinically managed and helped with treatments as well.

If you do need help with having a baby, then please give my friendly staff a call and find out how my fertility program may be able to assist you

Regards

Andrew Orr

-Master of Reproductive Medicine (MRepMed)

-No Stone Left Unturned

-The International Fertility Experts

Cancer Pregnancy Endometriosis

Why am I getting bleeding between my periods?

Vaginal bleeding between periods can be common and is not generally a cause for concern. Most of the time women will get just very light pink coloured watery flow, or just some spotting.

There can be many reasons why a woman would be getting bleeding between periods, which includes hormonal changes, injury, or an underlying gynaecological, or health condition.

While bleeding between your periods may not be cause for concern, on one level, the ideal situation is to not have any form of bleeding at all and if you do get bleeding between your cycle, it is a good idea to have this investigated, just to be on the safe side.

What a proper menstrual cycle should be like

I have done quite a few posts on what a proper menstrual cycle should be like, but I will go over this again just briefly

A proper menstrual cycle should be between 26-32 days in length and really only have about 3-5 days flow. Any longer than this can be too long and put a woman at risk of being low in iron, especially if this happens all the time.

The blood flow should be a nice red consistency, no clots, with no stopping and starting, and women shouldn’t have too many digestive disruptions, and really, a woman should not be getting pain with her cycle.

A little bit of distention and knowing the period is coming is fine, but there should not be pain at all. If you have to reach for the pain killers and the heat pack, or are doubled up in pain, this is not normal and you need to get this checked out.

What are the causes of bleeding between periods?

As mentioned before, there can be a variety of reasons for breakthrough bleeding, some of which are no cause for concern at all. Some however do need to be investigated.

Below are some of reasons for bleeding between periods:

Ovulation

When an egg is released from the ovary, it does create a tiny wound, through which the egg will then travel through the tubes and prepare to make its way to be fertilised, or then shed with the menstrual flow. At ovulation, this tiny wound can also create a tiny amount of bleeding, which can be seen as spotting during the ovulatory phase of a woman’s cycle.

Implantation bleeding

When an embryo implants into the uterine lining and begins to grow, many women experience spotting around this time. This is called implantation bleeding. They may also experience some slight cramping at the same time and all of this is quite normal. Some women may then experience some lighter bleeding as the embryo grows further. They usually get some light spotting, which can be a light pink, or a brown colour. Sometimes it can be more like fresh blood. While this is normal, it is a good idea to get this checked out just to be on the safe side and to also put the pregnant mothers mind as ease too.

Miscarriage

Bleeding between menstrual periods can be an early sign of a miscarriage. Many women may not even know they are pregnant and may be completely unaware they are having a miscarriage.  While it is generally thought that once a woman reaches twelve weeks gestation everything is generally going to be ok, miscarriages can occur at any time during pregnancy.

Termination

After having a termination women can bleed for some time after the procedure, or taking the medication to start the abortion process. If bleeding continues and is very heavy, women need to seek medical advice.

Polyps 

Polyps are small growths that can develop in the uterus or on the cervix. They are often a cause for unexplained bleeding between the cycles. Polyps do need to be removed as they can prevent implantation happening and they can also turn cancerous if left behind. Polyps are a very common cause of bleeding between periods.

Fibroids

Fibroids, or myomas (also known as leiomyomas, or fibromyomas) are growths, or benign (non-cancerous) tumours that form in the muscle of the uterus. Up to 40% of women over the age of 40 years have fibroids and as many as 3 out of 4 women develop fibroids in their lifetime.

Fibroids can cause heavy bleeding, extended bleed and painful periods. They can also cause infertility, miscarriage and premature labour. In many women, they will not cause any problems at all. Fibroids are a very common cause of bleeding between the cycles.

Polycystic Ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a very common condition that can cause irregular periods, absent periods, and can also cause bleeding between periods. PCOS can also cause other issues such as acne, weight gain, infertility and hormonal and emotional disturbances.

Endometriosis or Adenomyosis

One in ten women are diagnosed with endometriosis and many more do not even know that they have it. Endometriosis and Adenomyosis are very closely related, with endometriosis usually being more superficial disease and not confined to the uterus,  and adenomyosis being deep within the uterine tissue. Chronic conditions such as endometriosis and adenomyosis, can cause bleeding or spotting between periods.  These conditions may also cause heavy or painful menstrual periods and cramps between periods. Adenomyosis will usually cause more bleeding symptoms along with pain etc.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can cause pain, vaginal bleeding and spotting. If you do suspect you may have a STI, you need to see your doctor for investigation and treatment.

Injury to the vaginal wall

During sexual intercourse the tissue of the vagina can be damaged and this can then cause bleeding. If the vagina is too dry, lack of arousal, and not lubricated enough this is more likely to happen. It can also happen if there is atrophy in the vaginal tissue as well. This is called atrophic vaginitis.  This is more likely to be seen when a woman is going into menopause, or undergoing cancer treatments, or has diabetes.

Menopause or perimenopause

The menopausal stage of life and especially the perimenopause stage, can be a cause of irregular menses and irregular bleeding. It can also cause spotting, or heavy bleeding too. Perimenopause is the period leading up to menopause. This stage of a woman’s life can last for up to 10 years as hormone levels in the body change and can be unstable.

Hormonal contraceptives

Hormonal contraceptives are a common cause of bleeding between periods. They can also cause irregular bleeding and this can be quite usual in the first 3 months of using the contraceptive. If a woman misses takin her oral contraceptive, it can also cause irregular bleeding, or a withdrawal bleed.  Intrauterine Devices (IUD’s) like the Mirena, will often cause irregular periods and irregular bleeding in the first 3 months after it have been inserted. If bleeding lasts for longer than 3 months on any contraceptive, it is a good idea to seek medical advice and get investigated and managed properly.

Emergency contraception

The morning after pill, or emergency contraceptives, may also cause bleeding. If bleeding persists, you should seek medical advice.

Certain cancers

Vaginal bleeding between periods can also be a sign of gynaecological cancers in women. Most bleeding that women get is not serious, but it still needs to be checked.  Cervical cancer can affect women of any age. Bleeding between the cycle, or after intercourse, and pain after intercourse, or unpleasant smelling discharge can be symptoms of cervical cancer and these all need to be checked by your doctor, or gynaecologist.

Uterine cancer tends to occur in women over 50 year of age. One of the early symptoms of uterine cancer can be vaginal bleeding. Uterine cancer mostly affects women are in the menopause and no longer have periods, so this is why any bleeding after menopause needs to be investigate and seen as not being normal.

Stress

Yes, stress can cause abnormal bleeding and also interfere with a woman’s cycle. Increased levels of stress can interfere with hormones and this can lead to bleeding, irregular cycles, or pain with cycles too.

When to see a doctor

If vaginal bleeding between periods is heavy, persistent, or unusual then a woman should go and see a specialist, or a gynaecologist, who is a specialist in this area of medicine. As mentioned previously, while some causes of bleeding are not serious, some are and need to be properly investigated and properly managed medically.

Treatment and prevention

All women should keep a record of their menstrual cycle and when the period starts and how long it lasts for. Any abnormal bleeding should be recorded so that you can show your healthcare specialist if need be. Any abnormal bleeding should be investigated and the treatment will depend on what the underlying cause is.

Women should try and see their healthcare specialist for regular pap smears and regular check-ups for gynaecological health.

If women are getting small tears and bleeding caused from dryness in the vagina, then there are water based lubricants that can be used to help with lubrication and to moisturise the surrounding tissue.

There is no cure for gynaecological and reproductive issues such Endometriosis, but these disease states can be treated and managed to give women a normal life.

Proper treatment of these issues needs a “Team”, or multimodality approach using medical options, surgical interventions, pelvic floor specialists, complementary therapies, hormone therapies, and diet and lifestyle changes. It is about using what works for the individual and not a blanket one treatment fits all approach.

Last but not least, all women should know that period pain is not normal and that irregular bleeding really isn’t normal either. While most causes of bleeding are not life threatening, they still need to be investigated and checked out properly. Never ever put off seeing a medical specialist if you have abnormal bleeding.

If you would like to book in a consultation with me and find out how I can assist you with women’s health conditions, please give my friendly staff a call and they will be able to assist you.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

Nk cells nurturing baby

Natural Killer Cells Nourish & Promote the Growth of The Fetus

A study published  in the journal Immunity shows that part of the uterine Natural Killer cell population helps to optimize maternal nourishment of the fetus at early stages of development, not hinder it.

These Natural Killer Cells have actually been shown to secrete growth promoting factors that can also reverse impaired fetal growth and help prevent miscarriage, not cause it.

For many year now I have had people contact me and trying to kill the killer cells, or treat high natural killer cells, or wipe out these cells that they are being told is causing them to miscarry, or not be able to hold an embryo.

For those same amount of years I always said that Natural Killer Cells are meant to be there and the reason they are there is because of inflammation and are doing their job. Now finally, what I have been saying has been proven to be true and now we have an explanation of what these immune cells actually do and the mechanism behind it. They don’t harm the embryo at all. They are there to protect it, nourish it and help it grow.

Natural killer cells are among the most abundant immune cells in the uterus during the first trimester of pregnancy, but their numbers decline substantially after the placenta forms. Up until recently many in the fertility profession have led people to believe that Natural Killer Cells are the cause of all their issues and these new findings may have them eating their words.

Not only have women been offered hormones, steroids and the likes that have never been proven to do they say they do, but they not only have major side effects, but could actually be trying to regulate the very thing that is meant to help a pregnancy.

The results of these new findings not only reveal new properties of natural killer cells during early pregnancy, but also point to approaches for therapeutic administration of natural killer cells in order to reverse restricted nourishment within the uterine environment

Acting as our bodies’ frontline defense system, natural killer cells guard against tumors and launch attacks against infections. This is something that I have been trying to explain for years. If natural killer cells are in high amounts, they are there for a reason and that reason needs to be treated, not the high killer cells. T

here has been much research on how Uterine natural killer cells promote immune balance and the growth of blood vessels in the placenta, having a positive impact on birth weight as well as fetal growth. But until now, it was not clear which subset of natural killer cells in the uterus are responsible for promoting fetal growth, or whether these cells help to optimize fetal nourishment at early developmental stages.

In the new study it was discovered that a specific subset of natural killer cells in the human uterine lining secretes growth-promoting factors, which are involved in wide-ranging developmental processes. This subset of cells made up a smaller proportion of natural killer cells in the uterine lining of patients who experienced recurrent spontaneous miscarriage and reduced implantation (42%) compared to healthy females (81%). These findings suggest that insufficient secretion of growth-promoting factors by a specific subset of natural killer cells may be responsible for restricted fetal development in humans.

The studies also showed that a deficiency in this subset of natural killer cells resulted in severe fetal growth restriction and defective development of the fetal skeletal system. The studies also showed that the transfer of uterine natural killer cells reversed fetal growth impairments.

For the purpose of promoting fetal growth in humans, it may be possible to transfer natural killer cells via intravenous infusion or the administration of a vaginal suppository to mothers, avoiding the need for invasive procedures. Moreover, uterus-like natural killer cells are a much safer alternative to many of the methods used in immunotherapy and safer that steroids, or other immunosuppressant’s.

Obviously more study is needed, but these findings are about to turn part of the fertility profession upside down and make it re-evaluate itself.

I’ve always said it isn’t the natural killer cells killing off embryos and always said it was from inflammation and inflammatory gynaecological conditions that weren’t being treated.

We now know that stress uterine cells are also a big part of the issue too. I always say treat the cause to treat the symptoms and now we know that Natural Killer cells aren’t part of the cause, they are actually there to help.

If you are having troubles not conceiving, my fertility program may be able to assist you. If you would like to find out more, please call my friendly staff and they will be able to explain more to you.

Take care

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

-The International Fertility Experts