Metformin for ovarian cancer

Could A Diabetes Medication Prevent Ovarian Cancer?

A laboratory study published in Clinical Cancer Research offers a new hypothesis about how ovarian cancer forms and suggests how an insulin resistance/diabetes medicine may prevent it.

Ovarian Cancer Facts.

  • Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women, and
  • Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women
  • The five-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is 45 percent.
  • Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer or a mutation of the BRCA gene are at greatest risk of the disease.
  • There is no reliable screening test to catch this cancer early
  • The only options for prevention are birth control pills, which reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by half, or removing the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Common symptoms are bloating, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal upset and weight loss/gain.

For more information on Ovarian Cancer please click the link to my article Let’s Talk About Ovarian Cancer

The New Research.

The study is the first to show that the natural stiffening of the ovaries called “fibrosis” occurs with age. It also suggests that the diabetes drug metformin may be able to halt this process.

This is an interesting hypothesis, which then begs many questions. It also then leads to looking at other supplements and medications that help with insulin resistance and regulation.

So, should we just be looking at the medications, or looking at the underlying cause of the issue, which seems to be insulin resistance?

After all, insulin resistance is a big driver on inflammation and disease processes in the body. But let’s look at Fibrosis first.

What is Fibrosis?

Fibrosis happens when body tissues are repeatedly injured and inflamed, leaving behind hard collagen fibres that pile up over time, like a scar on the skin. Research has shown that cancer cells tend to like growing in these fibrotic tissues. Fibrosis is also a normal part of aging and usually appears around the menopausal stage of life.

The Findings of The Study

The first part of the investigation was for the team to find out what was causing the fibrosis of the ovaries. They thought the answer might lie in ovulation. Every time an ovary releases an egg it becomes inflamed, creating a monthly cycle of wound and repair.

During the study the research was surprised to find an ovary from a 69-year-old woman that had no fibrosis. The woman’s medical records showed she had been taking metformin, a drug for Type 2 diabetes. What was interesting is that a Taiwanese study had previously noted an 82% reduction of ovarian cancer rates among Type 2 diabetes patients taking metformin.

The research team performed a series of experiments to investigate the links between ovarian fibrosis, aging and metformin.

The first part of the research, the team used mice studies and used a drug to prevent mice from ovulating. They noticed that the treated mice did not develop fibrosis with age, which then suggested that ovulation might be linked to the development of fibrosis. The team also noted that more detailed studies are needed to confirm these findings.

The second part of the research was to examine the ovaries that had been removed from women of all ages. What they found was that the ovaries of most of the postmenopausal women had fibrosis. But, they also notices the when the ovaries of postmenopausal women where were taking metformin were examined, none of these showed any evidence of fibrosis.

With these new finding the team set about looking at the rationale of targeting ovarian fibrosis as new option to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. They also added in the rationale for the use of metformin to prevent ovarian cancer, based on these findings as well. The team are currently doing more research into learning how fibrosis develops in the ovaries and how metformin may be stopping this from happening.

These findings will need to be confirmed with more studies before clinical trails can take place. But, this could lead to a non-invasive test to measure fibrosis and help with early detection of ovarian cancer.

The team are hoping that metformin may prove to be an effective preventative treatment for younger women who are at high risk of ovarian cancer, but who can’t remove their ovaries because they still want to have children.

Added thoughts

While any research into ovarian cancer is welcomed, as mentioned previously, if metformin is helping with prevention of fibrosis, then surely we need to be looking insulin resistance as being a major cause of this?

It also begs the question, do other natural insulin regulators such as inositol do the same thing and would be better to use because Metformin does have a high side effect profile?

Insulin Resistance and Disease

We do know that insulin is a big driver of inflammation and disease states in the body. Insulin resistance is the name given to when cells of the body don’t respond properly to the hormone insulin.

Insulin resistance is the driving factor that leads to many disease states and health conditions such as:

  • Obesity and being overweight
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Type 2 diabetes,
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Pre-diabetes.
  • Stroke
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Stroke
  • PCOS
  • Reproductive conditions
  • Infertility

Insulin Resistance is linked to certain cancers

Meanwhile, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are also linked with higher risk for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, cervix, pancreas, prostate and uterus. 

The connection: High insulin levels early in insulin resistance seem to fuel the growth of tumours and to suppress the body’s ability to protect itself by killing off malignant cells.

Insulin resistance is closely associated with obesity; however, it is possible to be insulin resistant without being overweight or obese. We see this in women who have PCOS and who are not overweight, or obese.

Modern research has shown that insulin resistance can be combatted by treatment methods that reduce how much insulin the body is producing. Reducing insulin resistance can be achieved by following a grain free, low refined food diet.

Final note

If found to metformin to helping with fibrosis and this then leads to ovarian cancer, surely we need to look at what the root cause it. As mentioned above, one could assume it would have to be insulin resistance and we already know that insulin resistance is a driver of certain cancers and tumours.

Surely then, it would make sense to educate women, especially those with family history of ovarian cancer, about the importance of low GI diets and maintaining optimum health and optimum weight etc, in the prevention of not only ovarian cancer, but other disease states that affect women as well.

There are also valid alternatives to using Metformin, which has a very high side effect profile and has some long-term health consequences. There are valid alternatives such as using inositol, which has lots of research behind it and has been compared to Metformin in several research studies. Something to think about and I always like to give people something to think about important issues such as this. Just remember that you heard it here first.

 

Journal References:

  1. Curtis W. McCloskey, David P. Cook, Brendan S. Kelly, Feryel Azzi, Christian H. Allen, Amanda Forsyth6, Jeremy Upham, Katey J. Rayner, Douglas A. Gray, Robert W. Boyd, Sangeeta Murugkar, Bryan Lo, Dominique Trudel, Mary K. Senterman, Barbara C. Vanderhyden. Metformin abrogates age-associated ovarian fibrosisClinical Cancer Research, Oct 9, 2019
  2. Mehri Jamilian; Pegah Farhat; Fatemeh Foroozanfard; Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi; Esmat Aghadavod; Fereshteh Bahmani; Bita Badehnoosh; Hamidreza Jamilian; Zatollah Asemi. Comparison of Myo-inositol and Metformin on Clinical, Metabolic and Genetic Parameters in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. A Randomized Controlled Clinical TrialClin Endocrinol. 2017;87(2):194-200.
  3. Fruzzetti F, Perini D, Russo M, et al. Comparison of two insulin sensitizers, metformin and myo-inositol, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017;33:39–42.
  4. Chiu TT, Rogers MS, Law EL, et al. Follicular fluid and serum concentrations of myo-inositol in patients undergoing IVF: relationship with oocyte quality. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1591–1596.
  5. Artini PG, Di Berardino OM, Papini F, et al. Endocrine and clinical effects of myo-inositol administration in polycystic ovary syndrome. A randomized study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:375–379.
  6. Zacche MM, Caputo L, Filippis S, et al. Efficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009;25:508–513.
  7. Costantino D, Minozzi G, Minozzi E, et al. Metabolic and hormonal effects of myo-inositol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2009;13:105–110.
  8. Orgel: The Links Between Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, and Cancer. Curr Diab Rep. 2013 Apr; 13(2): 213–222. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3595327/
  9. Dijiogue S: Insulin resistance and cancer: the role of insulin and IGFs. Endocr Relat Cancer February 1, 2013 20 R1-R17. http://erc.endocrinology-journals.org/content/20/1/R1.full
  10. Orgel: The Links Between Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, and Cancer. Curr Diab Rep. 2013 Apr; 13(2): 213–222. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3595327/

 

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Let’s Talk About Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer often has no symptoms in the early stages. Later stages are associated with symptoms, but they can be non-specific, such as loss of appetite and weight loss.

Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and stomach. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat and can be fatal. This is why early intervention is something I am very big on and why we all need to not put things off when they present themselves.

Ovarian cancer is the 9th most common cancer diagnosed in Australian women.

Ovarian cancer is the 6th most common cause of cancer death in Australian women.

The present life expectancy of Australian women is 84 years. One in 77 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer before the age of 85.The risk of ovarian cancer increases with age. About 83% of all new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in 2005 were in women 50 years or older. The median age of first diagnosis is 64 years.

The five year survival rate for ovarian cancer is 45%.

Symptoms
Most women with ovarian cancer experience at least one symptom of the disease in the year prior to their diagnosis. The following can all be signs of ovarian cancer:

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Abdominal or back pain
  • Appetite loss or feeling full quickly
  • Changes in bowel habit
  • Urinary frequency or incontinence
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Unexplained weight loss or gain
  • Indigestion or heartburn

Why is bloating a sign of ovarian cancer?

Ascites (a build-up of fluid in the abdomen and a sign of advanced ovarian cancer) is probably the major cause of bloating in women with ovarian cancer. Therefore, waiting for bloating as a key ‘sign’ is too late and we want to encourage all women to ‘know your normal’ and if this changes, to seek medical help. This is why any changes in the body need to be looked into. Many may think that they are reacting to foods, or they have a gut issue etc, but it may actually be the signs of ovarian cancer. This is why proper investigations and proper differential diagnosis by a trained professional is so important.

Family history
While having a family history of ovarian cancer increases a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer, 90-95 per cent of all ovarian cancers occur in women who do not have a family history.

Key factors associated with increased risk include:

  • Multiple relatives on the same side of the family affected by breast cancer (male or female) or ovarian cancer
  • Younger age at cancer diagnosis in relatives
  • Relatives affected by both breast and ovarian cancer
  • Relatives affected with bilateral breast cancer
  • An increase in age
  • Inheriting a faulty gene (called a gene mutation) that increases the risk of ovarian cancer
  • Being Caucasian (white) and living in a Western country with a high standard of living having few or no full-term pregnancies
  • Starting your menstrual cycle early (before the age of 12) and beginning menopause after the age of 50
  • Taking hormone therapy (HT) after menopause. Some studies suggest this may increase your risk of developing ovarian cancer, but others don’t make this connection
  • Never having taken the contraceptive pill – the pill has been found to reduce the risk of cancer of the ovaries and uterus
  • Only five to 10 per cent of all ovarian cancers are associated with a family history. The risk of developing ovarian cancer increases with the number of affected first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children)
  • Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

Diagnosis for Ovarian Cancer

There is currently no evidence to support the use of any test, including pelvic examination, CA125 or other biomarkers, ultrasound (including transvaginal ultrasound), or a combination of tests, to screen for ovarian cancer. The only way to properly screen for it is through histology done at the time of laparoscopy.

While CA126 can be a diagnostic, it really has limited value and I have to let people know that it isn’t the best diagnostic at all. 50% of ovarian cancers will actually have a normal CA125 reading.

The cancer council’s guidelines are quite clear about this after numerous research studies show that CA125 has limited diagnostic value for Ovarian cancer. If markers and symptoms are suggestive of Ovarian Cancer, the only true diagnostic is Laparoscopy with histology to really get an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment for Ovarian Cancer

At such an advanced stage, the cancer is more difficult to cure. As ovarian cancer advances, cells from the original tumor can spread (metastasize) throughout the pelvic and abdominal regions and travel to other parts of the body. Cancer cells are carried through the body through lymph vessels and the bloodstream.

If a woman is suspected of having ovarian cancer, she should be referred to a gynaecological oncologist. Research shows survival for women with ovarian cancer is improved when their surgical care is directed by a gynaecological oncologist.

Treatment for ovarian cancer usually involves surgery and chemotherapy. It may also include radiotherapy.

Usually your healthcare practitioner, or GP, will generally arrange for initial tests and looks after your general health as well as coordinating with your specialists. Depending on your treatment you will be seen by several specialists, such as: medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, radiologist, gynaecological pathologist, cancer nurses and other health professionals such as a dietitian, physiotherapist, social worker and a counsellor.

With any condition that affects the body, we often get early warning signs and this is why early intervention and making sure you are investigated and management properly is so important.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-Women’s and Men’s Health crusader

-No Stone Left Unturned

-The Women’s Health Experts

01 Dr Andrew Orr

The Man-Bashing of Male Healthcare Practitioners Who Help Women’s Health Issues. It Needs To Stop

All to often I hear some women “Man-Bash” male healthcare practitioners who specialise in Women’s Health issues. Often when male healthcare professionals are trying to bring awareness to female health issues it is now seen as the buzz word “Mansplaining”

What these individuals need to know is that there are many men at the forefront of women’s health issues and they are here to help women, not hinder them. These men do what they do because they care and they are passionate about what they do. Some do so because of partners, or family with gynaecological issues and they want to help any way they can.

These Male Specialists have had years of training and clinical experience and research behind them and actually know more about the female body than many females know about themselves. Being a female, or having a gynaecological disease does not make one an expert. The same goes for males with male health issues too.

Many of these male Women’s Health specialists are also some of our best advanced trained laparoscopic surgeons as well.  Many of these health experts also specialise in women’s diseases such as endometriosis.

We also have women specialists who are at the top of their field in male health issues. This should not be a gender thing and unfortunately some misinformed people tend to make it so. Too many people try to make it about self, rather than the bigger issue, or collective.

Many men give up their own time and are not paid for the work they do with women’s health issues. Some of  them are working at government level, media level and all sorts of areas to bring awareness to diseases that affect women.

Let’s not forget the men whose partners are affected by disease states. These men offer great support to women who suffer around the world and while they do not suffer the disease, they go through it all with their partners on differing levels.

In this video, I tackle two issue that really need to be talked about

  1. Period pain is not normal and no matter what anyone says, this is a fact
  2. We need to end the Man-Bashing of males who specialise in women’s health issues because many men are at the forefront and are trying to help women get the recognition they deserve.

Let’s end the silence for women who suffer disease states like endometriosis. Let’s end the myths around women’s health issues.

Period pain is not normal and women need to know about it.

Just like we need to end the silence about women’s health issues, we also need to end the Man-Bashing of male healthcare practitioners and educators out there at the forefront of women’s health.

Being a male does not mean we do not understand women’s disease states and it does not mean we do not understand pain. By taking away from these men’s messages and their dedication to women’s health, it is also causing damage to the bigger picture and is actually sabotaging women as well.

Have a listen to my latest video blog and explanation of this important subjects that we all need to talk about.

I myself am a male healthcare professional who helps with treatment, management and education of women’s health issues. I genuinely care about issues such as period pain, endometriosis, PCOS and fertility.  I have family with gynaecological issues and I have cared for thousands of women with gynaecological and fertility issues. It is a very special interest of mine and I want to see women get the care and help they need. Being male should not even be bought into this.

Lastly, if you are in pain and needs help, please give my clinic a call and make a time to book in a consultation.

Take care

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-Women’s and Men’s Healthcare advocate
-No Stone Left Unturned

-The Endometriosis Experts

01 Dr Andrew Orr 1

blood donation 3087392 1920

Why Iron Deficiency and Anaemia Should Be Take More Seriously

One of the common things I am seeing in women of all ages is iron deficiency and anaemia. Many women have very low levels of iron and are unaware of the dangers this may pose to their short term, and long term health.

We are also seeing women being hospitalised and seek emergency help due to iron deficiency and anaemia and this highlights that there is inadequate management and detection of a very preventable condition. It also means that many women are not taking this matter seriously enough and often put off seeking screening and then aren’t having their iron levels managed properly.

I need to let all women know that having low iron can be very dangerous. It is something that should not be glossed over, or taken lightly. Iron deficiency can and does cause short term and long term health complications.

Iron deficiency can raise the risk of the following health conditions

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Osteoporosis
  • Compromised immune system
  • Increased risk of infections
  • Tachycardia
  • Heart failure
  • Enlarged heart
  • Lung problems
  • Muscle aches and cramps
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Delayed growth and development (mainly in children)

These are just some of the health issues that being low in iron can cause and it very important that we start educating all women and healthcare providers about the importance of iron.

What are the symptoms of Iron Deficiency and Anaemia?

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting, or feeling of feeling faint
  • Pale skin
  • Breathless
  • Frequent headaches
  • Palpitations or racing heart
  • Easily irritated
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Cracked, or reddened tongue, sore tongue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Strange food cravings such as wanting to eat dirt, or clay
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Brittle nails
  • Hair loss
  • Tingling, or crawling feeling in the legs

Iron deficiency is a very common cause of fatigue and other health issues in women and men, but is more commonly seen in women. Iron deficiency is also the most common cause of anaemia.

What are the causes of Iron Deficiency and Anaemia?

  • Heavy menstrual bleeds
  • Endometriosis
  • Adenomyosis
  • Fibroids
  • Polyps
  • Coeliac disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Stomach or intestinal ulcers
  • Pregnant and Breast Feeding Women
  • Certain Cancers
  • Vegetarians and Vegans
  • Eating disorders and food restriction
  • Girls going through puberty
  • Certain illnesses

Heavy menstrual bleeds and gynaecological condition’s such as Endometriosis, Adenomyosis, Fibroids and Polyps are some of the main causes of iron deficiency and anaemia in women. This is closely followed by dietary inadequacies and food and nutritional restriction.

Many women have undiagnosed gynaecological conditions which are the cause of their iron deficiency and anaemia. Some of these gynaecological conditions will require surgical interventions to be diagnosed properly.

How are Iron Deficiency and Anaemia Diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider can organise routine blood tests to test for iron deficiency and anaemia. These will include the following

  1. Full Blood Count (FBC)
  2. Iron Studies

These tests will provide the following information on :

  • The Total Iron level in your blood
  • Ferritin levels
  • Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)
  • Iron saturations levels
  • The red blood cells size and colour (RBCs)
  • The white bloods cells (WBCs)
  • Haemoglobin
  • Hematocrit ( the percentage of blood volume that is made up of RBCs
  • Blood platelets
Other tests

There are other tests to check for the cause of iron deficiency and anaemia and these could include stool analysis (check for blood in stool), endoscopy and colonoscopy ( surgical intervention gastrointestinal bleeding) and laparoscopy (key hole surgery for gynaecological conditions)

Treatments for Iron Deficiency and Anaemia

Diet– A healthy diet that is rich in proteins, vegetable and iron rich foods is the best way to ensure your iron levels stay at optimum levels. A proper diet should include leans meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, healthy oils, green leafy vegetables and other coloured vegetables, and moderate fruit intake.

Supplements– Supplements will help to keep iron levels and vitamin B12 levels in optimum ranges. Iron supplements are very much needed if you are vegetarian, or vegan. There is now research to show that women who experience fatigue will benefit from supplemental iron, even if their iron levels and ferritin are within normal range. Those with heavy menstrual cycles, or those whom have inflammatory bowel issue should also be supplementing

NB- All iron supplements should be taken with vitamin C to help with absorption. Many iron supplements also cause constipation and therefore you should get a good one that does not interfere with your bowel habits and is more easily absorbed. Many of the mineral based iron products are not absorbed well and do cause gastrointestinal upset.

I always recommend a specific practitioner only brand to my patients because it is better absorbed, and it does not interfere with the bowel habits.

Iron Infusion– Sometimes when iron gets too low, supplements just will not be enough to get iron levels up to where they should be quick enough. This is where iron infusions can be very effective. Please see my post on when you need to use and iron infusion. (Click here)

Treating the underlying cause of bleeding

Supplements will not help if the cause of the iron deficiency and anaemia is from excessive bleeding. It may help a little, but it will not be enough. Even iron infusions will only be short lasting if you don’t treat the underlying cause of the bleeding issue. Extreme cases may even need a transfusion to get iron levels and blood levels back up to optimum.  This is why it is important to screen for underlying gynaecological conditions that can cause heavy and excessive bleeding.

If you are getting low in iron if means there is something wrong and there is a deficiency that needs to be addressed. Please do not take iron deficiency lightly and always be prompt to find the causes and restore optimum levels of iron in the body.

Prevention is a must

Prevention is always the best way to treat any health condition and this goes for iron deficiency as well. Ensuring you eat a healthy diet with iron rich diet is a great start. As said before, vegetarians and vegans are going to have to supplement and work really hard with their diet to ensure they get adequate iron. Even then it can still be hard as plant based foods just do not have the iron levels that meats, eggs and seafood’s have.

Make sure you also have lots of vitamin C in your diet to help with iron absorption and it is a good idea to supplement with vitamin C to ensure you get the right daily intake.

Final Word

If you do think you might be low in iron or have anaemia, please make sure you talk to your doctor, or your healthcare practitioner. Please do not supplement with iron without checking your levels first. Having too much iron can be dangerous and you also need to make sure you do not have hereditary high iron (haemochromatosis), which can present with the same symptoms as low iron.

If you are found to be low in iron, then please make sure you take prompt action to restore your iron levels and also make sure you are screened as to why you are low in iron in the first place.

Iron deficiency and Anaemia can be very serious and should never be taken lightly. Please always consult with your doctor, specialist, or healthcare practitioner for the most effective ways to keep your iron levels in healthy ranges.

Take care

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

-The Women’s Health Experts

Cancer Pregnancy Endometriosis

Why am I getting bleeding between my periods?

Vaginal bleeding between periods can be common and is not generally a cause for concern. Most of the time women will get just very light pink coloured watery flow, or just some spotting.

There can be many reasons why a woman would be getting bleeding between periods, which includes hormonal changes, injury, or an underlying gynaecological, or health condition.

While bleeding between your periods may not be cause for concern, on one level, the ideal situation is to not have any form of bleeding at all and if you do get bleeding between your cycle, it is a good idea to have this investigated, just to be on the safe side.

What a proper menstrual cycle should be like

I have done quite a few posts on what a proper menstrual cycle should be like, but I will go over this again just briefly

A proper menstrual cycle should be between 26-32 days in length and really only have about 3-5 days flow. Any longer than this can be too long and put a woman at risk of being low in iron, especially if this happens all the time.

The blood flow should be a nice red consistency, no clots, with no stopping and starting, and women shouldn’t have too many digestive disruptions, and really, a woman should not be getting pain with her cycle.

A little bit of distention and knowing the period is coming is fine, but there should not be pain at all. If you have to reach for the pain killers and the heat pack, or are doubled up in pain, this is not normal and you need to get this checked out.

What are the causes of bleeding between periods?

As mentioned before, there can be a variety of reasons for breakthrough bleeding, some of which are no cause for concern at all. Some however do need to be investigated.

Below are some of reasons for bleeding between periods:

Ovulation

When an egg is released from the ovary, it does create a tiny wound, through which the egg will then travel through the tubes and prepare to make its way to be fertilised, or then shed with the menstrual flow. At ovulation, this tiny wound can also create a tiny amount of bleeding, which can be seen as spotting during the ovulatory phase of a woman’s cycle.

Implantation bleeding

When an embryo implants into the uterine lining and begins to grow, many women experience spotting around this time. This is called implantation bleeding. They may also experience some slight cramping at the same time and all of this is quite normal. Some women may then experience some lighter bleeding as the embryo grows further. They usually get some light spotting, which can be a light pink, or a brown colour. Sometimes it can be more like fresh blood. While this is normal, it is a good idea to get this checked out just to be on the safe side and to also put the pregnant mothers mind as ease too.

Miscarriage

Bleeding between menstrual periods can be an early sign of a miscarriage. Many women may not even know they are pregnant and may be completely unaware they are having a miscarriage.  While it is generally thought that once a woman reaches twelve weeks gestation everything is generally going to be ok, miscarriages can occur at any time during pregnancy.

Termination

After having a termination women can bleed for some time after the procedure, or taking the medication to start the abortion process. If bleeding continues and is very heavy, women need to seek medical advice.

Polyps 

Polyps are small growths that can develop in the uterus or on the cervix. They are often a cause for unexplained bleeding between the cycles. Polyps do need to be removed as they can prevent implantation happening and they can also turn cancerous if left behind. Polyps are a very common cause of bleeding between periods.

Fibroids

Fibroids, or myomas (also known as leiomyomas, or fibromyomas) are growths, or benign (non-cancerous) tumours that form in the muscle of the uterus. Up to 40% of women over the age of 40 years have fibroids and as many as 3 out of 4 women develop fibroids in their lifetime.

Fibroids can cause heavy bleeding, extended bleed and painful periods. They can also cause infertility, miscarriage and premature labour. In many women, they will not cause any problems at all. Fibroids are a very common cause of bleeding between the cycles.

Polycystic Ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a very common condition that can cause irregular periods, absent periods, and can also cause bleeding between periods. PCOS can also cause other issues such as acne, weight gain, infertility and hormonal and emotional disturbances.

Endometriosis or Adenomyosis

One in ten women are diagnosed with endometriosis and many more do not even know that they have it. Endometriosis and Adenomyosis are very closely related, with endometriosis usually being more superficial disease and not confined to the uterus,  and adenomyosis being deep within the uterine tissue. Chronic conditions such as endometriosis and adenomyosis, can cause bleeding or spotting between periods.  These conditions may also cause heavy or painful menstrual periods and cramps between periods. Adenomyosis will usually cause more bleeding symptoms along with pain etc.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can cause pain, vaginal bleeding and spotting. If you do suspect you may have a STI, you need to see your doctor for investigation and treatment.

Injury to the vaginal wall

During sexual intercourse the tissue of the vagina can be damaged and this can then cause bleeding. If the vagina is too dry, lack of arousal, and not lubricated enough this is more likely to happen. It can also happen if there is atrophy in the vaginal tissue as well. This is called atrophic vaginitis.  This is more likely to be seen when a woman is going into menopause, or undergoing cancer treatments, or has diabetes.

Menopause or perimenopause

The menopausal stage of life and especially the perimenopause stage, can be a cause of irregular menses and irregular bleeding. It can also cause spotting, or heavy bleeding too. Perimenopause is the period leading up to menopause. This stage of a woman’s life can last for up to 10 years as hormone levels in the body change and can be unstable.

Hormonal contraceptives

Hormonal contraceptives are a common cause of bleeding between periods. They can also cause irregular bleeding and this can be quite usual in the first 3 months of using the contraceptive. If a woman misses takin her oral contraceptive, it can also cause irregular bleeding, or a withdrawal bleed.  Intrauterine Devices (IUD’s) like the Mirena, will often cause irregular periods and irregular bleeding in the first 3 months after it have been inserted. If bleeding lasts for longer than 3 months on any contraceptive, it is a good idea to seek medical advice and get investigated and managed properly.

Emergency contraception

The morning after pill, or emergency contraceptives, may also cause bleeding. If bleeding persists, you should seek medical advice.

Certain cancers

Vaginal bleeding between periods can also be a sign of gynaecological cancers in women. Most bleeding that women get is not serious, but it still needs to be checked.  Cervical cancer can affect women of any age. Bleeding between the cycle, or after intercourse, and pain after intercourse, or unpleasant smelling discharge can be symptoms of cervical cancer and these all need to be checked by your doctor, or gynaecologist.

Uterine cancer tends to occur in women over 50 year of age. One of the early symptoms of uterine cancer can be vaginal bleeding. Uterine cancer mostly affects women are in the menopause and no longer have periods, so this is why any bleeding after menopause needs to be investigate and seen as not being normal.

Stress

Yes, stress can cause abnormal bleeding and also interfere with a woman’s cycle. Increased levels of stress can interfere with hormones and this can lead to bleeding, irregular cycles, or pain with cycles too.

When to see a doctor

If vaginal bleeding between periods is heavy, persistent, or unusual then a woman should go and see a specialist, or a gynaecologist, who is a specialist in this area of medicine. As mentioned previously, while some causes of bleeding are not serious, some are and need to be properly investigated and properly managed medically.

Treatment and prevention

All women should keep a record of their menstrual cycle and when the period starts and how long it lasts for. Any abnormal bleeding should be recorded so that you can show your healthcare specialist if need be. Any abnormal bleeding should be investigated and the treatment will depend on what the underlying cause is.

Women should try and see their healthcare specialist for regular pap smears and regular check-ups for gynaecological health.

If women are getting small tears and bleeding caused from dryness in the vagina, then there are water based lubricants that can be used to help with lubrication and to moisturise the surrounding tissue.

There is no cure for gynaecological and reproductive issues such Endometriosis, but these disease states can be treated and managed to give women a normal life.

Proper treatment of these issues needs a “Team”, or multimodality approach using medical options, surgical interventions, pelvic floor specialists, complementary therapies, hormone therapies, and diet and lifestyle changes. It is about using what works for the individual and not a blanket one treatment fits all approach.

Last but not least, all women should know that period pain is not normal and that irregular bleeding really isn’t normal either. While most causes of bleeding are not life threatening, they still need to be investigated and checked out properly. Never ever put off seeing a medical specialist if you have abnormal bleeding.

If you would like to book in a consultation with me and find out how I can assist you with women’s health conditions, please give my friendly staff a call and they will be able to assist you.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

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Genetics & Gene Sequencing May Be The Path To a Cure for Endometriosis

I have always said that the biggest inroads to the management and treatment of endometriosis will come from the area of genetics. I’ve also said that if there is going to be a cure, this will be the pathway that is comes from.

We know that there are hereditary components to endometriosis and that if a parent, or someone in the family tree has the disease, it is likely to be passed onto the offspring in the gene pool of that family tree.

Research published in the New England Journal of Medicine has revealed that Gene sequencing has found a set of genetic mutations which may help to develop molecular tests to distinguish between mild and aggressive types of endometriosis.

This is a big step forward into finding out more about endometriosis and developing better medical treatments and management strategies. Hopefully one day it will also lead to a cure for women with this horrible disease.

Endometriosis is a painful disorder in women which ‘endometrial like’ tissue grows outside of the womb, most commonly into the abdomen, and will affect at least 1 in 10 women. It can spread to every part of the body.

Many women with endometriosis will experience symptoms of abdominal pain, migraines, pain with sex, ovulation pain, IBS like symptoms, UTI like symptoms (without infection present), menstrual cramps, abdominal distension and possible issues with infertility.

Endometriosis can affect both physical and mental health in sufferers. While a portion of women with endometriosis get pain and associated symptoms, it needs to be noted that a significant portion of women with endometriosis are asymptomatic (no symptoms) and would not even know that had it, until they are investigated for fertility purposes.

This discovery helps moves towards developing genetic based systems for classifying endometriosis to sort out which forms of the disorder needs more aggressive treatment. Presence of the unusual set of mutations suggest that while origins are rooted in normal endometrial cells mutations change their fate, the mutations identified have links to genetic mutations found in some forms of cancer. Abnormal endometriosis tissue growth will often spread throughout the abdominal cavity but rarely becomes cancerous with exception to a few cases when the ovaries are involved.

The close links to cancer have always baffled scientists, as endometriosis does behave like a cancer the way it spreads, and now they have found some of the same mutations found in cancers, in some of the endometriosis lesions. But again, endometriosis rarely turns cancerous, except if it does spread to the ovaries, but there have been some studies to suggest links that women with endometriosis may be at more risk of endometrial cancer.

In this research, the research scientists analysed the samples looking for mutations or abnormal changes in DNA and filtered out normal variations in genes which commonly occur. At least one or more mutations in endometriosis tissue that were not present in their normal tissue, in which the number and type of mutations varied per endometriosis lesion and each woman.The types of mutations found were among the most common mutated genes found, which are all known for DNA repair, controlling cell growth, and cell invasion.

The researchers are working on additional studies to investigate whether patient outcomes correlate with the mutations. Testing which can sort lesions into less or more aggressive has potential to help decide how to monitor progression as well as control and treat the endometriosis. It may also be possible to develop new treatments which use agents that block gene related pathways specific to an individual’s disease.

Women are normally prescribed anti-hormonal treatments, which block estrogen to shrink lesions. Endometriosis is estrogen driven and is not from estrogen dominance, as some people would have women believe.

Even small amounts of estrogen can drive the disease and cause the expression of the lesions. When endometriosis occurs on the ovaries and forms a large cyst, or endometrioma, it is typically removed as it increases the risk of developing ovarian cancer in some women.

I honestly believe (in my opinion only) that Endometriosis is a genetic condition passed down through the parental mode of inheritance and is much the same as other hereditary genetics issues such as haemachromatosis etc.

I also believe that the closest disease we can compare endometriosis to is cancer, as endometriosis spreads very much the same and can cause inflammation and pain in many part of the body. I do think we need to start talking about endometriosis being more like a benign form of cancer, in the way that it behaves and spreads through the body and the havoc it causes on the body too.

While this new development is not a cure for endometriosis, it is providing new insights into the disease, which will hopefully one day see a cure in the not so distant future. Lets help end the silence for women with this horrible disease by getting more awareness out there and let us hope that the cure will eventually come one day soon.

Regards

Andrew Orr
-No Stone Left Unturned
-Period Pain IS NOT Normal
-The Endometriosis Experts

References:

    1. https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1614814 –  (Cancer-Associated Mutations in Endometriosis without Cancer)
    2.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › pmc › articles › PMC6447774 – the genetic profile of endometriosis
    3. https://imb.uq.edu.au/article/2017/03/spotlight-endometriosis-research-long-game-help-our-daughters
    4. Stefansson H, Geirsson RT, Steinthorsdottir V, Jonsson H, Manolescu A, Kong A, Ingadottir G, Gulcher J, Stefansson K. Genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:555–559. doi: 10.1093/humrep/17.3.555. [PubMed]
    5. Matalliotakis M, Goulielmos G, Zervou M, Matalliotaki C, Koumantakis G, Matalliotakis I. The familial risk of endometriosis among the female relatives of patients with endometriosis in Greece. JEPPD. 2017;9:184–187. []
    6. Treloar SA, O’Connor DT, O’Connor VM, Martin NG. Genetic influences on endometriosis in an Australian twin sample. sueT@qimr.edu.au. Fertil Steril. 1999;71:701–710. doi: 10.1016/S0015-0282(98)00540-8. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
    7. Krishnamoorthy K, Decherney AH. Genetics of endometriosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2017;60:531–538. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000293. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
    8. Wang M, Hao C, Huang X, Bao H, Qu Q, Liu Z, Dai H, He S, Yan W. Aberrant Expression of lncRNA (HOXA11-AS1) and Homeobox A (HOXA9, HOXA10, HOXA11, and HOXA13) Genes in Infertile Women With Endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2018;25:654–661. doi: 10.1177/1933719117734320. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
    9. Christofolini DM, Mafra FA, Catto MC, Bianco B, Barbosa CP. New candidate genes associated to endometriosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2019;35:62–65. doi: 10.1080/09513590.2018.1499090. [PubMed] [CrossRef[]
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Women With PCOS May Be At More Risk of Uterine Cancer

Researchers in the United Arab Emirates (UEA) have found that women who have Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome have an increased risk of uterine cancer, reducing their chances of fertility.

The researchers have also found that women, who are overweight, or obese, are also at increased risk of uterine cancer. Being overweight and obese also increases a woman’s chances of PCOS too, but not all women with PCOS are overweight.

A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute last year has shown that endometrial cancer diagnoses have increased in 26 of 43 countries, mainly due to increasing obesity cases which themselves have tripled in the last 40 years, according to World Health Organisation.

The experts believe that obese women are 10 times more likely to suffer from uterine cancer. Being overweight, or obese also puts women at risk of other diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. Obesity and being overweight also puts women at risk of other cancers too.

There are other factors involves such as an imbalance in the hormones with over-exposure to estrogens can lead to endometrial cancer. This could be due to endogenous causes such as Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome, or exogenous causes such as unopposed estrogens in menopausal hormone therapy if progesterone is not prescribed.

Some women may have genetic family syndromes that is predispose to uterine cancer along with breast, ovarian and other cancers. The causes of uterine cancer may be multifactorial, but this new research does help with screening of women who are suffering from PCOS, or who maybe overweight, or obese.

The researchers did find that regular exercise and healthy lifestyle choices can serve as a protection against uterine cancer, but can also help with PCOS and obesity.

The researchers did warn that women in reproductive years should not take symptoms of endometrial cancer lightly, since early diagnosis and treatment is an essential key to fertility preservation.

Once a condition that only affected women of advanced years, increasing clinical evidence now suggests that even women below 40 years of age can be diagnosed with uterine cancer.

The cancer cases are on the rise due to higher incidence of known co-morbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

Symptoms of the endometrial cancer include:

  • vaginal bleeding between periods
  • bleeding after menopause
  • an abnormal, watery or blood-tinged discharge from vagina
  • constant back and pelvic pain
  • unintended weight loss
  • fatigue and nausea

Early screening is essential and women can safely consider fertility preservation provided that the cancer is diagnosed in early stages.

Fact around uterine cancer

  • Early diagnosis of uterine cancer can save women from fertility loss
  • World over, an increasing number of women in reproductive years falling prey to the disease
  • Obese women are 10 times more likely to suffer from endometrial/uterine cancer, other causes include hypertension and diabetes
  • PCOS may now be a risk factor for uterine cancer

Women who have PCOS, or who are overweight, should be seeking help with dietary and lifestyle management to help prevent them from other risk factors such as certain cancers. According to the world health organisation, the number one treatment for PCOS is changing to a low GI diet and doing regular exercise.

One of the major causes of PCOS is insulin resistance and this is a big factor in many who are overweight, or obese, or have type 2 diabetes. All of these issues can be controlled with the right management. I do need to state that women of all body types do have PCOS and insulin resistance can be seen in all body types too.

If you do need help with PCOS, I do have a special interest in this disease state and may be able to assist you. To find out more, please call my friendly clinic staff. They will be able to explain everything to you and book you in for a consultation.

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

-The PCOS Experts

Atrophic Vaginitis

What causes a burning sensation in the vagina and around the vulva?

A burning sensation in and around the vaginal, vulva area is a relatively common complaint that many women experience and something that is seen by healthcare practitioners very often.

There are so many different causes of vaginal and vulva burning, including irritants, sexually transmitted diseases, atrophic vaginitis, thrush, lichen sclerosis, climates changes and is very common in peri-menopause and the menopause period. Each of the causes has its own set of symptoms and the treatments can all vary, depending what the cause it.

In this article we will look at the common causes of having a burning sensation in the vagina and around the vulva area. We will also look at treatments and management of these as well.

Before we start, it is important that women know that often people use the wrong term for the vagina and the surrounding area and often refer to a woman’s genitals as just being the vagina. It is important that we use the correct terms for a woman’s anatomy so that we can correctly identify were problems are.

The vagina is more the internal part of the female genitals and the vulva is the external part. Th Vulva is an umbrella term for the various parts of the external female genitals. These parts include:

  • Mons pubis – the fatty ‘pad’ that’s covered in pubic hair
  • Labia majora – outer lips
  • Labia minora – inner lips
  • Clitoris – small organ that’s packed with nerve endings
  • Urethral opening – which allows the passage of urine
  • Vestibule – area around the opening of the vagina
  • Perineum – area between the vagina and anus

Now that we understand the proper terms for the anatomy, lets have a look at what some of the common causes of burning sensation are.

Common causes of vaginal and vulva burning sensation

1.Skin Irritation

There are many things that can irritate the skin of the vulva and vagina when they come into direct contact with it. This is known as contact dermatitis.

Irritants that can cause contact dermatitis, inflammation and burning symptoms include non pH neutral soaps, certain fabrics, perfumes, vaginal hygiene sprays, some lubricants and allergens. As well as burning sensations, women may experience the following:

  • severe itching
  • redness and rawness and sometimes bleeding
  • stinging feelings and sensations of heat
  • pain and sometimes

The main way to treat irritation is to avoid whatever has caused the irritation in the first place. Avoiding the irritant and allowing the inflamed area and the skin to heal is one of the best things to do. Sometimes, a woman may require medications to settle the inflammation, or dermatitis down.

2. Candidiasis (Thrush, Yeast infections)

An overgrowth of bad bacteria in the vagina can lead to a burning, stinging sensation and one of the common causes of issues for women. Candidiasis, or thrush is very common in women and is causes through changes in the gut and vaginal flora and this then leads to overgrowth of bacteria, which causes many of the following symptoms

  • itching
  • soreness
  • pain during sex
  • pain or discomfort when urinating
  • discharge from the vagina (either white, or coloured)

Women are more likely to be prone to getting thrush if they are taking antibiotics, using certain form of hormones and contraceptives, have a weakened immune system, live in humid climates, have diabetes, are pregnant, or not cleaning themselves properly. High stress can also lead to changes in the gut and vagina flora and this can also lead to thrush.

Thrush is usually an antifungal medicine called azoles. Azoles can either be used internally into the vagina, or taken orally as a capsule, or both at the same time. Pre and Probiotics should be taken to help build up the good bacteria and women should take care with personal hygiene. Partners may also need to be treated to prevent further reintroduction of thrush via sexual intercourse.

3. UTI- Urinary tract infection

When a woman has a urinary tract infection (UTI), she will be likely to feel burning in and around the vagina when urinating. There may be other presenting symptoms such as:

  • needing to urinate more frequently, or have urgency to urinate
  • pain with urination
  • smelly, or cloudy urine
  • blood in urine
  • pain in lower stomach and radiating pain into the back and kidney area
  • feeling tired or unwell

When a woman has a urinary tract infection antibiotics will be needed and the antibiotics needed will depend on what the cause of the infection is. Usually an infection will clear up in around 5 days after starting a course of antibiotics.Repeat medication may be required if an infection returns.

4. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in women aged 15 to 44. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a condition that occurs when there is too much of certain kinds of bad bacteria in the vagina, affecting the balance of good bacteria and flora. One of the main symptoms of BV is a burning sensation in the vagina, which can also occur when urinating.

BV does not always cause symptoms but when it does cause symptoms, besides a burning sensation, it can cause the following:

  • white or gray vaginal discharge
  • pain and irritation
  • itching and redness
  • strong fish-like odor, especially after sex (one of the key symptoms)

Having BV can increase a woman’s risk of STI’s and it can also increase her risk of miscarriage, once she is pregnant. If you think that you may have the symptoms of BV, you need to have it check by your doctor as soon as possible. BV is usually treated with antibiotics and you can use complementary medicines to assist in the treatment as well. It is a good idea to restore the good bacteria into the gut and vagina as well. This can be done through the use of prebiotic and probiotic bacteria combined.

5. Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is a common STI and is caused by a parasite that is passed from one person to another during sexual intercourse. Many people may not know that have Trichomoniasis, but symptoms can present with a burning sensation and may  also present with  the following:

  • itching, redness, or soreness
  • discomfort when urinating
  • women can have vaginal discharge that can be clear, white, yellow, or green and with a fishy smell

Trichomoniasis can increase a woman’s risk of miscarriage, so it need to be treated asap. Trichomoniasis is treated by using certain forms of medicines called azoles.

6. Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is an sexually transmitted infection where bacteria called Neisseria gonorrheae infect mucous membranes, such as the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. If a woman is infected with gonorrhoea she can experience vaginal burning when urinating, as well as the following symptoms:

  • pain when urinating
  • vaginal discharge
  • vaginal bleeding between periods

Gonorrhea can be cured with the right medical treatment and it needs to be treated with specific medications. Often dual forms of medication are used for effective treatment.

7. Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common STI caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and is  transmitted through sexual intercourse with someone who has the infection.

If a woman comes in contact with chlamydia through intercourse, many times she may be asymptomatic (meaning no symptoms) and this is why it is often known as a silent infection. When symptoms do occur it can cause a burning sensation in the vagina and surrounding area. There can be other symptoms which include:

  • increased vaginal discharge
  • pain with urination and pain during sex
  • bleeding during sex and between periods

Chlamydia can cause damage to a woman’s reproductive organs and can affect her fertility, so it is important to have this treated as soon as possible.  Chlamydia is treated using specific high dose antibiotics. Treatment may also require IV antibiotics and for someone to be admitted to hospital while these are being administered.

8. Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by skin-to-skin contact with a person with the herpes virus. Once a person has the virus, it stays with them for life. Sometimes the virus can remain dormant and then at certain stages of life (during stress, illness etc), it can become active and start producing symptoms.

If the virus becomes active, they might experience a burning sensation in the vagina, along with some of the following symptoms:

  • an itching or tingling sensation
  • flu-like symptoms
  • swollen glands
  • pain in the vaginal area, particularly when urinating
  • change in vaginal discharge

Painful sores, blisters, or ulcers may also develop after a few days. The symptoms of genital herpes can be treated with antiviral medication but once you have herpes, it cannot be cured. You just need to manage it and its symptoms.

9. Lichen sclerosus

Lichen sclerosus is a skin condition that affects the vulva area in women. Lichen sclerosus can cause burning sensation around the vulva area. It can also cause the following symptoms:

  • itching and tenderness.
  • Pain
  • Scarring
  • Wrinkling and white patches

Postmenopausal women are most susceptible to have lichen sclerosus. The cause is thought to be an autoimmune response of some kind, since the condition is associated with autoimmune disorders such as Graves’ disease and vitiligo. Treatment includes topical steroid creams, other medications, silica cream, zinc cream and regular medical monitoring. Lichen sclerosus is linked to an increased risk of vulvar cancer.

10. Menopause

Vaginal and vulva burning can be as a result of the perimenopause, or menopause stages of life. The shifting levels of hormones in a woman’s body before she enters menopause can affect the vagina and surrounding area. Burning sensations, in the vagina and around the vulva area is one possible result of these changes, especially during sex.

Some of the common symptoms of the perimenopause/menopause period are:

  • hot flushes & night sweats
  • difficulty sleeping
  • reduced sex drive
  • vaginal dryness
  • headaches
  • mood changes
  • Pain with sex
  • Atrophic vaginitis.

Not all women entering menopause have treatment to relieve symptoms, but there are often options available that a doctor, or healthcare practitioner, can outline, including hormone therapy. There are also many natural therapies that can help during peri-menopause and menopause stages of life.

What you can do to help yourself

Many causes of vaginal burning require medical treatment. If you are concerned, the best you can do is to see your healthcare practitioner. There are things you can do before seeing your doctor. Sometimes a ice pack or cold compress to the affected area can help reduce the burning sensation. You can also try some over the counter soothing creams, or antifungals.

Make sure you are practicing proper hygiene and cleaning the outer area of the vulva properly. Women should avoid using douches, which can affect the good bacteria and internal flora of the vagina.  Wearing cotton underwear and avoiding tight-fitting clothes can help reduce irritation in the vaginal area. It is also important to avoid products that could irritate the area further, such as perfumed soap, scented toilet paper, and sanitary products with deodorant, or a plastic coating.

Possible complications

Some causes of vaginal burning, such as urinary tract infections, BV, STI’s, lichen sclerosis can have some serious complications if left untreated. Cancer also needs to be ruled out so this is why it is important to have any symptoms of burning checked out by your doctor.

STI’s can affect future fertility and are also harmful to women who are pregnant, as they can affect their baby, or pregnancy. Many STI’s can cause preterm delivery and also increase the risk of miscarriage.

While some causes of vaginal and vulva burning may go away on their own over time, it is still important to go and get your doctor’s advice just to be safe. If your symptoms aren’t going away, are becoming worse, or are of a concern, then the woman should go and see a doctor as soon as possible. The longer you leave something, the worse it can get and the more issues it can cause, if left untreated. Many of the cases of burning sensation in the vagina and around the vulva will be relieved once the underlying cause is treated properly and with the appropriate medicines.

While medical options will be needed for some conditions, there are complementary medicines and complementary medicine modalities that may be able to assist your particular issue, or alongside medical treatments. Please always see a qualified healthcare practitioner and not use Dr Google, or take advice from friends or family for any medical advice.

Take care

Regards

Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

-The Women’s Health Experts

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Blue Berries Help To Fight Cervical Cancer & Enhance Medical Treatments

Researchers have shown that combining blueberry extract with radiation may be the next treatment in the war against cervical cancer. Plus, Blueberry extract also offered normal cell protection from the radiation at the same time

Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death, accounting for nearly 300,000 deaths annually. In developing nations, it is often the most common cause of cancer-related death among women and a leading cause of death overall.

One of the most common treatments for cervical cancer is radiation. While radiation therapy destroys cancer cells, it also destroys nearby healthy cells. University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers studied in vitro human cancer cells to show that combining blueberry extract with radiation can increase the treatment’s effectiveness.

When Radiation therapy is needed it uses high-energy X-rays and other particles such as gamma rays to destroy cancer cells. For some cancers, such as late-stage cervical cancer, radiation is a good treatment option. However, collateral damage to healthy cells always occurs. Because of the damage to healthy cells researchers studied blueberry extract to verify if it could be used as a radiosensitizer.

Radiosensitizers are non-toxic chemicals that make cancer cells more responsive to radiation therapy. In a previous studies research has shown that resveratrol, a compound in red grapes, could be used as a radiosensitizer for treating prostate cancer. It is also know that Blueberries also contain resveratrol. In addition to resveratrol, blueberries also contain flavonoids, which  are chemicals that may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.

The researchers used human cervical cancer cell lines to mimic clinical treatment. The cell lines were divided into four groups that included a control group, a group that received only radiation, a group that received only blueberry extract, and a group that received both radiation and the extract.

Researcher found that on its own, radiation decreased cancer cells by approximately 20 percent. Interestingly, the cell group that received only blueberry extract had a 25 percent decrease in cancer. However, the biggest decline in cancer cells occurred when the radiation was combined with the blueberry extract. There was a 70 percent  decrease in cancer cells in the group the blueberry and radiation group.

The other interesting observation was that the blueberry extract also reduced the abnormal explosion of cell growth, which is what cancer is. While the blueberry extract inhibits the birth of cancer cells it also tricks the cancer cells into dying. So the extract inhibits the borth and promotes the death of cancer cells.

Blueberries are an amazing food source with antioxidant properties and many health benefits. They are also found all over the world and it is great to see this super food doing a super job of boosting the effectiveness of existing medical therapies to save women’s lives around world.

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-No Stone Left Unturned

 

 

Super Sperm Could Save Women’s Lives

Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death, accounting for nearly 300,000 deaths annually. In developing nations, it is often the most common cause of cancer-related death among women and a leading cause of death overall.

While the treatment of cervical cancer has improved considerably, there still needs to be better solutions and more effective treatments found. There are also many side effects of these treatments and scientists may have found the answer in one of the strongest swimmers on the planet…. Sperm.

Over the years, scientists have tried to find delivery systems into cancer cells to minimize the side effects of drugs, but to target tumor and cancer directly. They have looked at many delivery systems from Stem Cells to Bacteria and none have shown the promise of the mighty sperm.

In a latest scientists report from the journal ACS Nanothat, scientists have harnessed the swimming power of sperm to carry a cancer drug directly into a cervical tumor.

The challenge for many drugs is that they do not penetrate far enough into the tissue of a cancer cell. So scientists have been trying to find a self propelled system that can penetrate another organism and carry a drug deep into the heart of it. Well, guess what?         That is exactly what sperm is designed to do and these mighty swimmers are having a back pack full of drugs strapped to the back and through the influence of magnetic fields, are being successfully guided into tumor cells.

The researchers packaged a common cancer drug, into bovine sperm cells and outfitted them with tiny magnetic harnesses. Using a magnetic field, sperm were guided into a lab-grown tumor of cervical cancer cells. When the harness arms pressed against the tumor, the arms opened up, releasing the sperm. The sperm then swam into the tumor, fused its membrane with that of a cancer cell, and released the drug. When unleashed by the thousands, drug-loaded sperm killed more than 80 percent of a cancerous ball while leaking very little of their payload en route.

Further work is needed to ensure the system could work in animals and eventually humans, but researchers say the sperm motors have the potential to one day treat cancer and other diseases in the female reproductive tract.

We don’t often look at sperm other than something that is needed to make a baby. But this tiny mighty swimmer could be used to one day treat inflammatory gynaecological conditions such as endometriosis, adenomyosis and other inflammatory gynaecological diseases.

I have written quite a few posts on some of the uses of sperm to help treat depression, help trigger ovulation and also assist with implantation of the embryo. Sperm may just become the next saviour in the attack on diseases many women face and help save women’s lives all over the world. Hail to the mighty super sperm.

Just remember that to have super sperm, you also need to be super healthy. Poor health and lifestyle choices leads to poor quality sperm. Things like alcohol, smoking, drugs, poor diet etc, all lead to poor quality sperm. There are also essential nutrients, antioxidants and amino acids that help sperm quality too.

Take care

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

-Women’s & Men’s Health Advocate

-No Stone Left Unturned