Natural Killer Cells Nourish & Promote the Growth of The Fetus

A study published December 19th in the journal Immunity shows that part of the uterine Natural Killer cell population helps to optimize maternal nourishment of the fetus at early stages of development, not hinder it.  These Natural Killer Cells have actually been shown to secrete growth promoting factors that can also reverse impaired fetal growth and help prevent miscarriage, not cause it.

For many year now I have had people contact me and trying to kill the killer cells, or treat high natural killer cells, or wipe out these cells that they are being told is causing them to miscarry, or not be able to hold an embryo. For those same amount of years I always said that Natural Killer Cells are meant to be there and the reason they are there is because of inflammation and are doing their job. Now finally, what I have been saying has been proven to be true and now we have an explanation of what these immune cells actually do and the mechanism behind it. They don’t harm the embryo at all. They are there to protect it, nourish it and help it grow.

Natural killer cells are among the most abundant immune cells in the uterus during the first trimester of pregnancy, but their numbers decline substantially after the placenta forms. Up until recently many in the fertility profession have led people to believe that Natural Killer Cells are the cause of all their issues and these new findings may have them eating their words. Not only have women been offered hormones, steroids and the likes that have never been proven to do they say they do, but they not only have major side effects, but could actually be trying to regulate the very thing that is meant to help a pregnancy.

The results of these new findings not only reveal new properties of natural killer cells during early pregnancy, but also point to approaches for therapeutic administration of natural killer cells in order to reverse restricted nourishment within the uterine environment

Acting as our bodies’ frontline defense system, natural killer cells guard against tumors and launch attacks against infections. This is something that I have been trying to explain for years. If natural killer cells are in high amounts, they are there for a reason and that reason needs to be treated, not the high killer cells. There has been much research on how Uterine natural killer cells promote immune balance and the growth of blood vessels in the placenta, having a positive impact on birth weight as well as fetal growth. But until now, it was not clear which subset of natural killer cells in the uterus are responsible for promoting fetal growth, or whether these cells help to optimize fetal nourishment at early developmental stages.

In the new study it was discovered that a specific subset of natural killer cells in the human uterine lining secretes growth-promoting factors, which are involved in wide-ranging developmental processes. This subset of cells made up a smaller proportion of natural killer cells in the uterine lining of patients who experienced recurrent spontaneous miscarriage and reduced implantation (42%) compared to healthy females (81%). These findings suggest that insufficient secretion of growth-promoting factors by a specific subset of natural killer cells may be responsible for restricted fetal development in humans.

The studies also showed that a deficiency in this subset of natural killer cells resulted in severe fetal growth restriction and defective development of the fetal skeletal system. The studies also showed that the transfer of uterine natural killer cells reversed fetal growth impairments. For the purpose of promoting fetal growth in humans, it may be possible to transfer natural killer cells via intravenous infusion or the administration of a vaginal suppository to mothers, avoiding the need for invasive procedures. Moreover, uterus-like natural killer cells are a much safer alternative to many of the methods used in immunotherapy and safer that steroids, or other immunosuppressant’s.

Obviously more study is needed, but these findings are about to turn part of the fertility profession upside down and make it re-evaluate itself

I’ve always said it isn’t the natural killer cells killing off embryos and always said it was from inflammation and inflammatory gynaecological conditions that weren’t being treated. We now know that stress uterine cells are also a big part of the issue too. I always say treat the cause to treat the symptoms and now we know that Natural Killer cells aren’t part of the cause, they are actually there to help.

If you are having troubles not conceiving, or having troubles with miscarriage, it might be time to book in and be a part of my fertility program that has helped over 12,500 babies into the world

Take care

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

Reproductive Medicine & Women’s Health Medicine Specialist

-The International Baby Maker

-No Stone Left Unturned

 

Stressed Uterine Cells & Inflammation Cause Miscarriage, Not Natural Killer Cells

It is stressed uterine cells and inflammation causing miscarriage and causing the embryo not to implant, not Uterine Natural Killer cells.

For the first time the functions of natural killer cells in the womb have been identified by Researchers at the University of Warwick and University Hospitals Coventry

Although it has long been known that the lining of the womb harbours dynamic uterine natural killer cells, no functions have so far been given to these cells outside of pregnancy.

The researchers have discovered that the uterine natural killer cells remodel and refresh the lining of the womb at the time of embryo implantation. This is the first time a role for uterine natural killer cells in the lining of the womb has been identified outside of pregnancy. The research was published on December 14, 2017.

In addition they discovered that this process isn’t always balanced in each cycle. The natural killer cells perform the role of targeting and clearing inflammatory stressed cells, thereby making space for the implanting embryo. However sometimes not enough of these cells are cleared away and sometimes too many are targeted and removed. Excessive inflammation or insufficient clearance by uterine natural killer cells makes miscarriage more likely.

For many years I have been trying to tell people that they need to stop trying to get rid of the natural killer cells, or reduce their numbers. I have long known that natural killer cells are meant to be in the body and their job is to protect us from infections, bacteria, cancers, tumours and inflammation. If killer cells are in high numbers, it means that there is something wrong and that is what needs to be treated, not the killer cells. But unfortunately, many clinics play on couples emotions and the use of the word “Killer”. So then we get this war on killer cells and people wanting to kill the killer cells because they think it is killing their babies. No matter how hard I have tried to explain it, people just don’t listen and now it is finally great to have the research to back up what I knew all along, plus additional knowledge of how Killer cells actually help with implantation and reducing miscarriage.

The researchers have explained what happens if the natural killer cells cannot do their job properly, or there is inflammation that they haven’t been able to target. They said that a good analogy is Swiss cheese: without holes, the embryo has nowhere to go which will cause implantation failure; but if the holes are too large, the tissue will physically collapse and lead to miscarriage. This imbalance, which may be short-lived or last for multiple cycles, explains the high rate of early pregnancy failure. It really can be a numbers game on how long that cycle could last and why it is important to make sure there are enough natural killer cells there to do their job properly. Without the natural killer cells, there is more chance of inflammation and stressed uterine cells being left behind, which will then lead to higher pregnancy loss and reduced implantation.

The researchers conducted an analysis of 2,111 endometrial biopsies, which is more than had ever been conducted previously. The research team examined the acutely stressed cells in the lining of the womb which generate tissue inflammation. They found that the natural killer cells which are in the womb perform the important function of selectively targeting and eliminating acutely stressed cells.

When there are high acutely stressed cells in the lining of the uterus, the lining of the uterus fails to sense the chemical signals from the fertilised egg and it then silences many of the genes involved in allowing the embryo to implant and embed into the uterus.

One of the chemicals needed for this process to take place is Trysin, which is a common enzyme the embryos gives off. If trysin isn’t detected the embryo is not accepted and left to disintegrate and then the cycle is reset once again. The lack of Trysin signal appears to indicate to the endometrium that the quality of the embryo is not very high and initiates a reduction of receptivity to implantation. These findings could help to improve the success rates of IVF, because one of the biggest problems with IVF is getting the embryo to implant

The research team also found that high numbers of Natural Killer cells in the endometrium are not only a sign of high inflammation and acutely stressed uterine cells, but also indicate a insufficient production of steroids, which in turn leads to reduced formation of fats and vitamins that are essential for pregnancy nutrition.

Again, this is exactly what I have been trying to say for years and why when I treat women who are having implantation issues and recurrent miscarriage I look at treating the cause of the issue, rather than masking it.

To treat miscarriage and help with embryo implantation you need to do the following

  1. Reduce inflammation in the uterine environment and pelvic cavity
  2. Make sure the pelvis, tubes and uterus have been surgically evaluated properly prior to conception, or assisted reproduction (IVF, IUI, ICSI etc)
  3. Increase blood flow and nutrients into the uterine lining
  4. Ensure adequate essential fats and nutrients are given prior to conception
  5. Reduce stress levels
  6. Increase protein and reduce inflammatory refined carbohydrates
  7. Make sure the couple in are optimum health (healthy sperm + healthy eggs=health baby)
  8. Make sure the man is being treated at the same time the woman is (up to 85% of miscarriage issues are related to chromosomal and DNA factors related to poor quality sperm, which cannot be measured by a normal semen analysis)

We need to stop blaming high NK cells as being the cause of miscarriage and embryos not implanting. We need to look at the real cause, which is inflammation, stressed uterine cells ( due to stress in the person), lack of nutrients and blood flow in the uterus and lifestyle factors that is also leading to increase miscarriage rates and reduced embryo implantation. This is why I have my own range of fertility formulas to assist the uterine environment and help with implantation.

Let’s not forget that faulty sperm and DNA damage and chromosomal issues with sperm are also a big part of miscarriage too. Miscarriage is not just a woman’s issue. To be honest, statistically it is more likely to be on the male side of the equation and often gets overlooked. But that is a whole other post in itself.

This is why I offer a comprehensive fertility program that looks at every aspect of the couple and every aspect of fertility. It is also why I have helped over 12,500 babies into the world. It is about my motto of “No Stone Left Unturned” and treating the cause of people’s issues, not just guessing and trying to treat the symptoms as you go along.

Hopefully in the future this new information will be used to screen women at risk of reproductive failure and help with new treatment options for women suffering recurrent miscarriages or recurrent IVF failure.

If you are having trouble conceiving and want answers to your fertility issues, then maybe it is time to book into my fertility program and get some real answers, real treatment and get the baby you so desperately deserve.

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

Reproductive Medicine & Women’s Health Medicine Specialist

-The International Baby Maker

-No Stone Left Unturned

Super Sperm Could Save Women’s Lives

Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death, accounting for nearly 300,000 deaths annually. In developing nations, it is often the most common cause of cancer-related death among women and a leading cause of death overall.

While the treatment of cervical cancer has improved considerably, there still needs to be better solutions and more effective treatments found. There are also many side effects of these treatments and scientists may have found the answer in one of the strongest swimmers on the planet…. Sperm.

Over the years, scientists have tried to find delivery systems into cancer cells to minimize the side effects of drugs, but to target tumor and cancer directly. They have looked at many delivery systems from Stem Cells to Bacteria and none have shown the promise of the mighty sperm.

In a latest scientists report from the journal ACS Nanothat, scientists have harnessed the swimming power of sperm to carry a cancer drug directly into a cervical tumor.

The challenge for many drugs is that they do not penetrate far enough into the tissue of a cancer cell. So scientists have been trying to find a self propelled system that can penetrate another organism and carry a drug deep into the heart of it. Well, guess what?         That is exactly what sperm is designed to do and these mighty swimmers are having a back pack full of drugs strapped to the back and through the influence of magnetic fields, are being successfully guided into tumor cells.

The researchers packaged a common cancer drug, into bovine sperm cells and outfitted them with tiny magnetic harnesses. Using a magnetic field, sperm were guided into a lab-grown tumor of cervical cancer cells. When the harness arms pressed against the tumor, the arms opened up, releasing the sperm. The sperm then swam into the tumor, fused its membrane with that of a cancer cell, and released the drug. When unleashed by the thousands, drug-loaded sperm killed more than 80 percent of a cancerous ball while leaking very little of their payload en route.

Further work is needed to ensure the system could work in animals and eventually humans, but researchers say the sperm motors have the potential to one day treat cancer and other diseases in the female reproductive tract.

We don’t often look at sperm other than something that is needed to make a baby. But this tiny mighty swimmer could be used to one day treat inflammatory gynaecological conditions such as endometriosis, adenomyosis and other inflammatory gynaecological diseases.

I have written quite a few posts on some of the uses of sperm to help treat depression, help trigger ovulation and also assist with implantation of the embryo. Sperm may just become the next saviour in the attack on diseases many women face and help save women’s lives all over the world. Hail to the mighty super sperm.

Just remember that to have super sperm, you also need to be super healthy. Poor health and lifestyle choices leads to poor quality sperm. Things like alcohol, smoking, drugs, poor diet etc, all lead to poor quality sperm. There are also essential nutrients, antioxidants and amino acids that help sperm quality too.

Take care

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

Reproductive Medicine & Women’s Health Specialist

-Women’s & Men’s Health Advocate

-No Stone Left Unturned

No Bad Carbs + Increased Protein = Increased Fertility & Increased Pregnancy rates

I know I talk about it all the time, but a good diet, and I mean a good diet (not half hearted, I am trying to do it diet), can actually increase your fertility and pregnancy rates

Every day I get people ask me “What can I do to increase my fertility and my chances of pregnancy?”

Well, I always say “How long is a piece of string?”, but while there are many things that people can do to increase their fertility, one being start of my fertility program, the other important one is starting with a good diet. That is one thing “You” are solely responsible for and something “You” can do for yourself. This is for the couple too. Not just the woman.

Healthy couples produce healthy babies. That means health men produce healthy sperm and healthy women produce healthy eggs and the combination creates healthy embryos that go on to become healthy babies. It really is a fact. Even for same sex couples, a partner should be supporting their other half in the journey and at the end of the day a healthy diet is going to help everyone live longer to enjoy their children later on, and hopefully grandchildren too.

Obviously there is a lot more to it, and why in my fertility program I cover “everything” for the couple,  but this is one way to ensure your body is ready to have a baby. This is also part of my PACE (Primal, Ancestral, Clean Eating) diet that I have formulated.

Recent studies have shown that when the bad carbohydrates are removed and the protein increased, that the clinic pregnancy rates shot up by 80%. Yes… a massive 80%

The other thing that is important is that eating this way also improved the embryo quality. Blastocyst development was higher in the high-protein group than in the low-protein group (64% vs 33.8%), as were clinical pregnancy rates (66.6% vs 31.9%) and live birth rates (58.3% vs 11.3%).

Reducing carbohydrates and boosting protein intake can significantly improve a woman’s and couples chance of conception and birth according to the research presented at the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) several years ago.

The effect is “at the egg level,” said lead investigator. He presented the findings here at American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 61st Annual Clinical Meeting.

Carbohydrate-loaded diets create a hostile egg and embryo environment even before conception or implantation, he explained.

“Eggs and embryos are not going to do well in a high-glucose environment.” By lowering carbs and increasing protein, “you’re bathing your egg in good, healthy, nutritious supplements,” he said.

These studies demonstrate how little many in the reproductive medicine and fertility profession know about the effect of micronutrients in our diets on various aspects of reproduction.

These studies demonstrate a field wide open for future research and shows how bad carbohydrates (refined grains, refined sugars etc) have an inflammatory effect that affects fertility and pregnancy outcomes and also detrimental to IVF outcomes.

This is why I always promote a grain free, primal based diet (PACE Diet) to all of my patients, especially my fertility and gynaecology patients. It is an essential part of my overall success rate and why I have been able to help over 12,500 babies into the world and help many with gynaecological issues as well.

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

Reproductive Medicine & Women’s Health Medicine Specialist

-The International Baby Maker

-No Stone Left Unturned

Alcohol Decreases Fertility & Makes Gynaecological Conditions Worse

In today’s modern society, alcohol has become the cornerstone for social engagements, business dinners and after work relaxation. It is important to realise however, that alcohol can directly impact the fertility of both males and females. In males it can decrease sperm quality, reduce testicular size, decrease libido and cause impotence, all of which can impair fertility. In females it has a more systemic response, affecting the reproductive hormones, leading to abnormalities in the menstrual cycle and an increased risk of miscarriage.

Many men and women these days are actually consuming copious amounts of alcohol and may think that their drinking habits are normal, when compared to others around them. When people do things on a regular basis, it becomes their normal. But truth be told, many people’s drinking habits, both men and women, are actually in the realms of alcoholism. The impacts of that are far reaching and fertility and gynaecological conditions are definitely impacted by alcohol consumption.

Effect of Alcohol on Conception for Men

Fecundability refers to the probability of conception during a particular menstrual cycle. It is dependent on the reproductive potential of both partners. Alcohol decreases fecundability by its effect on sperm quality and quantity. Men who continue to consume alcohol on a regular basis, can decrease their sperm motility, morphology and their DNA in the sperm. All of which are important factors in achieving fertility. While outwardly a man’s sperm may look OK, many forget that inwardly, the sperm DNA could be highly fragmented and unless this is tested every ejaculation, you will have no idea how bad the sperm actually is. A one off DNA fragmentation analysis does not mean the sperm each time is OK. It only measures the sperm from the ejaculate that was tested and sperm quality can change by as much as 20% each ejaculation.

Testicular size is also affected by alcohol intake; and can also affect sperm production. Alcohol is a depressant of the central nervous system (CNS), and can disrupt the autonomic system of the CNS. These effects are temporary and short lived. Abnormal sperm production is also temporary and also can resume after abstaining from alcohol.

One study, this one looking at couples going through IVF treatment, found that for every additional drink a man consumed per day, the risk of conception not leading to a live birth increased by 2 to 8 times. This was especially true if the drinking occurred within a month of the IVF treatment.

Effect of Alcohol on Conception for Women

In women, alcohol affects fecundability, by disrupting the delicate balance of the menstrual cycle. Clinical research data published in the “British Medical Journal” suggests that women, who drank socially, 1-5 drinks per week, were at a greater risk of decreased fecundability when compared to women who remained abstinent. These findings underscore the importance of remaining abstinent while attempting to conceive.

Alcohol disrupts the hormonal imbalance of the female reproductive system, leading to menstrual irregularities, and even Anovulatory cycles, (menstrual cycles where ovulation fails to occur). Menstrual pain can directly be linked to the amount of alcohol consumed in the lead up to the menses and consumptions of alcohol, even small amounts, exacerbates most gynaecological conditions. These changes can drastically decrease a woman’s chance of becoming pregnant and thus affect fertility.

Alcohol effects fertility in both partners, and can do so in so many ways. For couples who desire to have a baby, it is best to stay away from drinking completely. Presently there is no safe limit of alcohol intake; even socially acceptable amounts of alcohol can affect fertility potential and outcomes. Moderate drinking (1-2 drinks in one sitting) is probably okay, especially if you reserve those drinks to a few times a week, instead of daily. However, if you’re going through IVF treatment, or trying to conceive naturally, you might consider cutting out alcohol for the time being. A woman that is trying to concieve, or trying to improve a gynaecological issues, or menstrual issues, should not be consuming more than 4 standard drinks per week. A male who is trying to conceive, or have sperm quality issues, should have no more than 2 standard drinks in one sitting and be having at least 2 alcohol free days per week. These are all part of the healthy drinking set out in health department and government safe drinking guidelines.

Trying to conceive is a special time in a couple’s life, it should be filled with love, devotion and safe health practices, which means a healthy diet and lifestyle and having a healthy mind too. It also means having healthy drinking habits as well.

Decreasing alcohol, having bete foods and looking at a healthy detoxification program is also a great idea for those trying to increase their fertility and get their reproductive systems working better. Healthy eggs and health sperm make healthy babies. Healthy reproductive systems also mean better menstrual cycles and better testicular health too.

Safe drinking everyone

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

(Reproductive Medicine & Women’s Health Specialist)

– The International Baby Maker

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

– No Stone Left Unturned

Sex Around The Time of Embryo Transfer Increases The Likelihood of Successful Early Embryo Implantation and Development.

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One of the things that I  promote is that regular sex is so important for our fertility patients, on so many levels. Sometimes the obvious eludes some people though

One of the things I see quite regularly is that couples doing Assisted Reproduction (ART) are abstaining from sex fearing it will affect their chances of conceiving. Actually the opposite is true. By not having sex during ART cycles (IUI, IVF etc) you are affecting your chances of conception.

I have often spoken about the importance of sex and orgasm assisting implantation in other posts and there is so much medical research to back this up

Let me ask the question “If you were trying naturally, would you stop having sex for fear that conception has taken place?”

Then why would you stop having sex around an ART cycle?

Let’s face the facts, implantation takes place in the uterus, and not the vagina, and no man is that well endowed to even penetrate the cervix, so…. Let’s get a grip here

The question to ask is “What does an embryo feed off and need to successfully implant?”

The answer is blood!

Think of a tick borrowing into skin to feed off its host.

How do you get blood flow into the uterine lining?

The answer is that sex and climax stimulate blood flow to the lining to assist implantation and also prepare the lining for implantation!

Nature has given us all the tools for healthy conception to take place, and yet many of us just aren’t using them.

This article shows that sperm are also beneficial in assisting implantation and exposure to semen around the time of embryo transfer increases the likelihood of successful early embryo implantation and development.

http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/12/2653.full

Don’t forget that regular sex during this time not only helps assist implantation, but it also helps with the bonding process and physical connection process during this stressful time. Many couples split up because of losing this connection during the ART process and sex is a way of keeping that physical and emotional connection. Sex also tells your body you are also preparing to conceive on another level too.

For those doing IVF etc, next time you are doing an ART cycle maybe it is time to start doing things the way nature intended to give you that boost you so desperately are needing. Time to go and get busy people.

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

Reproductive Medicine and Women’s Health Medicine Specialist

-The International Baby Maker

– No Stone Left Unturned

Seminal fluid improves fertility women and improves IVF pregnancy rates

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Seminal fluid is often viewed as simply a vehicle to carry sperm to fertilize the female egg, but a more complex function in influencing female reproductive physiology is now evident
Remarkably, seminal fluid contains special signaling agents that interact with the female reproductive tract to prime the immune response, with consequences for fertility and pregnancy outcome. This research isn’t new and we have spoken about this in previous posts. But we now know a bit more about how sperm may assist in implantation for, especially for IVF.

See my other post http://drandreworr.com.au/sex-around-the-time-of-embryo-transfer-increases-the-likelihood-of-successful-early-embryo-implantation-and-development/

Recent studies demonstrate a key role for seminal fluid in enabling  embryo implantation and optimal placental development. In particular, seminal fluid promotes health immune responses which facilitate embryo implantation by suppressing inflammation, assisting uterine circulation and blood supply and also protecting the embryo.

There is emerging evidence  where seminal fluid provokes an adaptive immune response in the cervical tissues after contact at intercourse, and spermatozoa accessing the higher tract potentially affect the endometrium directly. Research has now shown that sperm and seminal fluid actually help with endometrial receptivity, which is needed to create the right environment for a healthy embryo to implant.

These biological responses may have clinical significance, explaining why

[1] intercourse in IVF ET cycles improves the likelihood of pregnancy

[2] inflammatory disorders of gestation are more common in women who conceive after limited exposure to seminal fluid of the prospective father

[3] preeclampsia incidence is elevated after use of donor oocytes or donor sperm where prior contact with conceptusalloantigens has not occurred.

Research like this is important to define the mechanisms through which seminal fluid interacts with female reproductive tissues, to provide knowledge that may assist in preconception planning and infertility treatment. It also bring attention to the fact that couples still need to be engaging in regular intercourse during IVF cycles to help not only with implantation, but to increase pregnancy rates through optimization on the endometrial lining through contact with seminal fluid. Regular intercourse also promotes connection and bonding for the couple as well and this is something that is very much overlooked.

My clinic offers a comprehensive Fertility Program where couples are educated on important factors such as this… and more

If you would like to find out how you could improve your chances of having a baby, please give my clinic a call and ask about my highly successful fertility program that has helped over 12,500 babies (and counting) into the world and can increase a couples chances of conception by 96.1% *

For more information on my highly success fertility program, see also http://drandreworr.com.au/fertility/fertility-program/

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

Reproductive Medicine and Women’s Health Medicine Specialist

-The International Baby Maker

-No Stone Left Unturned

Facts about sperm health and their lifespan

Typically, millions of sperm cells are produced in the testicles every day. During this time, many things can affect their formation and interfere with their quality and maturity.

From a tiny sperm cell it can take between 90-120 days before a sperm is fully mature. The sperm eventually develops a head and tail, so that its cells start to resemble the shape of a tadpole. The head contains all of the DNA, or genetic material, and the sperm uses the tail to help it move. A sperm doesn’t reach full motility until it actually reaches the egg, where when touching the egg it creates a reactions that causes “super motility” to give it the final power to push inside the egg. This is called the acrosome reaction.

There has been lots of debate about the actual time it takes for a sperm to mature and become fully motile, but general consensus is that it will take somewhere between 90-120 days. This is why it is important that men look after their health long prior to conception, because the sperm they ejaculate today was created around 90-120 days ago and what they did to their bodies at that time, will influence how healthy those sperm are. So if a man had a poor diet, was drinking, smoking, had heaps of stress and goodness knows what, this can all have an impact of the maturing sperm and this can result in poor sperm quality and damage to the DNA of the sperm, which will then be carried onto his offspring, should the sperm be successful in fertilising an egg. This is why the couple need to be healthy prior to conception, not just the female.

Biology 101 tells us it take a sperm and an egg to make a baby, not just an egg. Sperm quality issues make up a big part of fertility issues and they can also be a big part of miscarriage issues too. I have spoken about this many times in previous posts. Up to 85% of miscarriage issues can be related to chromosomal and DNA factors related to poor quality sperm and this is often very much overlooked.

What factors impact on sperm health?

There are always many factors that can affect the sperm formation process and interfere with sperm quality and the DNA of the sperm.

Health and lifestyle factors

  • Recreations drugs, medications or alcohol use
  • job, or occupation
  • tobacco use, or smoking in general (including recreational drugs)
  • stress
  • overheating the testicles (spas, saunas, bike riding)
  • excess weight gain and excess body fat
  • Trauma
  • Bike riding (due to heat and trauma through the seat of the bike)
  • Poor diet and nutrition
  • Excess sugars and additives
  • Preservatives and artificial colours and artificial sweeteners

Environmental causes

  • exposure to industrial chemicals
  • heavy metals
  • radiation or X-rays

Medical reasons

  • infection of the testicles
  • cancer of the testicles
  • swelling of the veins (varicoceles etc) that drain blood from the testicle
  • hormone imbalances
  • physical problems in the tubes that carry sperm through the reproductive system
  • chromosomal or genetic disorders (such as Kleinfelters syndrome)
  • certain medications
  • surgery involving the pelvis, abdomen, or reproductive organs

How long do sperm live inside the female body?

There is always a huge misperception about how long sperm can survive outside the man’s body and when they enter into the female reproductive tract. Many women are told all manner of untruths of sperm lasting for weeks at a time. The truth is that sperm cannot survive for long once they are exposed to the air outside of the body.

Precisely how long they can survive depends on the environment that they are released into and how quickly the fluid surrounding the sperm cells dries up.

Sperm lifespan inside the female body

After ejaculation, sperm may be able live inside the female body for several days, but that is dependent on many varying factors once they enter a woman’s body.  The fluid in a woman’s reproductive tract, especially the fallopian tubes, has all of the nutrients that sperm need for their survival during that time. But while the woman’s body can help sperm on their way to meet the egg, it can also hinder it their survival as well. But even so, sperm really only have about 24 hours to fertilise an egg once it is released. After 24 hours, if the egg isn’t fertilised it will die, so really, it doesn’t matter how long the sperm can survive for if the egg has already died.

Poor sperm have to contend with many things when they enter a woman’s body. A woman’s vagina is coated in acids, to protect her from infections and bacteria, but it is also lethal to sperm. This is why within minutes and hours, most of the 300-500 million sperm that set off in search of the egg will be dead. Only a few million will survive to swim through cervix.

A woman’s body can help to get the sperm going up into to the cervix though. Through climax (orgasm) contractions are created that can help pull sperm up and into the uterus. Through these contractions the cervix is dipped time and time again into a pool of waiting sperm and this then helps carry the sperm up into the second stage of their journey through the uterus and then up into the tubes.

Once inside the female reproductive tract, the sperm cells must swim through the cervix and into the uterus to reach the fallopian tubes and then on to find the female egg. It is a very long journey for sperm to make and very few survive. Many get lost inside the uterus and some are attacked by the woman’s immune system along the way. By the time the survivors make it to the fallopian tubes to have a rest, there will only be less than 20 or more left to make the final journey.

After the sperm have a rest in the tubes and actually feed off some of the nutrients in the tubes many more will die, or be lost inside the tubes and by the time the final sperm reach the egg, there will be less than 10 single sperm left. Only one may then go on to fertilise the egg and an embryo is then started to be created.

This is why all men need to have their sperm quality checked by a proper andrology lab and some men will need further testing of the DNA (DNA fragmentation analysis) and further genetic testing if the semen results are poor. This should all be done prior to trying to conceive, as 50% of fertility issues are related to men. If a man has any of these risk factors, he should try to change them at least 3-4 months before trying to conceive, since that is how long it takes for sperm to fully mature. Some men may need longer than this, depending on what is causing their sperm to be of poor quality.

I will discuss some more myths and facts around sperm and what the most important parameters are to look at with sperm, in some later posts.

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

(Reproductive Medicine and Women’s Health Medicine Specialist)

-Women’s and Men’s Health Advocate

-No Stone Left Unturned

 

 

 

The Different Colours of Semen and What These May Mean

Many men often believe they have healthy sperm and healthy semen just because they were born male. The fact is that these days men’s sperm is now not as good as men’s sperm was 50 years ago. Much of this is now blamed on environmental estrogens and also dietary and lifestyle factors. Let’s face it, many guys are big alcohol drinkers, they eat poorly and some of the population are also indulging in recreational drugs regularly too.

To put it honestly, many of the male populations sperm are drunk, stoned and have so many defects from the lifestyle their owner has been living. The fluid they swim in, the seminal fluid, is often contaminated and not that much better.

While many men may want to believe they could impregnate every woman in their sight, or at the local bar, many men are flat out getting the woman they are with pregnant.

As I have often said, many often look at the female as being the major factor in the reproductive and fertility journey, yet to be honest; men are more than 50% of the issues faced with fertility and up to 85% of miscarriage issues are related to chromosomal and DNA factors related to sperm. These chromosomal and DNA factors cannot be seen in a routine semen analysis either and does require specialised genetic testing.

Men’s overall health is reflected in his sperm and semen and this health is now known to be passed onto his offspring. Yes, what men eat, drink, smoke, think etc, is passed onto his offspring. That is why we say the healthier the man is, the healthier his sperm is. Healthy men produce healthy babies.

The colour of semen

Much can be seen in the quality of men’s sperm and much can also be seen by the colour of the seminal fluid that sperm are carried in.  While semen is typically a whitish-gray colour, there are some instances when semen may appear as a different colour, which is commonly yellow. Sometimes producing unusual coloured semen is a once-only occurrence. Other times, a man may notice a more consistent change in the colour of his semen. Although this occurrence is not always a cause for concern, there are some instances when semen colour change can be an indicator of an underlying medical condition, or that a man’s health and lifestyle may be affecting his seminal fluid and his sperm.

 

Fast facts about semen and colour changes

Semen is a gel-like liquid that males emit during ejaculation or sexual release. Semen contains sperm, which can fertilize a female egg. Several glands and male reproductive organs are responsible for producing semen and transporting it for ejaculation. Dysfunction of one or more of these areas could lead to semen colour changes. Treatments for unusual coloured semen will depend upon the underlying cause.

Semen as a substance is a combination of secretions from the male reproductive glands as well as sperm. Changes and disruption to these areas are what cause colour changes.

Colour changes to semen and what is could mean:

Yellow Semen

One of the main colour changes seen in sperm is that is changes to the colour yellow.
The urethra is the tube that urine and semen pass through, so urine may mix with semen to change the colour. Although semen is usually a whitish-gray color, some men may have sperm that can change to a yellow colour. However, if yellow semen represents a significant colour change for a man, this could be cause for concern.

While semen that is light yellow is not usually a cause for concern, there are instances when a man should see a doctor for yellow semen, especially when the semen is a dark yellow.

If a man has other symptoms, such as yellowing skin, fever and high temp, the semen that has a terrible smell, or he experiences pain when ejaculating, he should see his doctor.

Some potential causes associated with yellow semen include:

  • Jaundice: This results when the liver a dsyfunction of the liver, or when the liver is in overload. Jaundice can causes yellowing of the eyes and yellowing of the skin and the semen can appear yellow too.
  • Abnormally high white blood cells: Inflammation can produce excess white blood cells. When there is infection, or inflammation, additional white blood cells can cause semen to appear yellow.
  • STIs: A sexually transmitted infection may also cause yellow semen. It may also cause other symptoms and cause the semen to have a terrible smell too.
  • Dietary changes: Eating certain refined foods can cause yellow semen. The smell of ejaculate may also change if a man eats strong-smelling foods, or have too much alcohol, or recreational drugs.
  • Infrequent ejaculation: If a man has not ejaculated in some time; the semen is more likely to have mixed with urine. The quality of semen and sperm is affected by infrequent ejaculation too. Storing it up makes it worse, not better and this is why regular ejaculation is important for sperm quality.

Other semen colour changes and what they may mean

Semen can be other colours too. Some other potential colour changes a man may notice include:

  • Brown or red: Sometimes blood vessel may burst around the seminal vesicles. The release of blood can cause semen to take on a brown or red appearance. If the semen continues to be red after 1 to 2 days, a man should seek medical treatment.
  • Green-tinted: Green-tinted semen can indicate a potential infection of the prostate or surrounding tissues. A man who has green semen may need to see his doctor.

What do if your semen colour changes

It is not completely abnormal for a man to produce semen that varies in colour, texture, and even smell. This can be caused by a man’s diet, lifestyle, amount of alcohol he drinks, drugs consumed, medications he is taking, and the amount of time since he last ejaculated. Stress can also affect his sperm and semen.

If a man notices something out of the ordinary, or his semen remains discoloured for an extended period, he should contact his doctor who can diagnose the potential cause and provide peace of mind. Sometimes medications and antibiotics may be needed. In severe cases surgical intervention and hospitalisation may be needed too.

Regards

Dr Andrew Orr

Reproductive Medicine & Women’s Health Medicine Specialist

-‘Women’s and Men’s Health Crusader’

-‘No Stone Left Unturned’